When dealing with the us oat markets though, special attention must be paid to the definition of bushel weight because us uses a winchester bushel (35.239 litres). 23 In livestock auction markets, cattle are sold in dollars per hundredweight (short whereas hogs are sold in dollars per hundred kilograms. Citation needed health care edit In the health care system, metric units are often given precedence, although actual metric units may still be different than the United States (for example, for measurements of blood cholesterol, the units are millimole per litre, whereas they are milligram. Most physicians chart patient height and weight in imperial units, and while most growth charts display both systems of measurement, the majority of hospitals officially document such parameters in metric. 24 dieticians still use kilocalories, and doctors use millimetres of mercury. 6 While these units are metric derivatives, they are not metric units.
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Construction materials, including construction lumber and drywall, continue to be sold in imperial measurements; retrofitting metric-sized (designed for 400 mm centres) wallboard on old 16 in (410 mm) spaced studs is difficult. In English-speaking Canada commercial and residential spaces are mostly (but not exclusively) constructed using imperial units and advertised accordingly, while in French-speaking quebec commercial and residential spaces are constructed in metres and advertised using both metric and imperial units as equivalents. 18 19 However, the zoning by-laws and building codes that govern construction are in metric, although most building codes will also contain imperial equivalents. In addition, rural areas in Western Canada ( Canadian Prairies ) were mapped and segmented using the dominion Land Survey. This based most rural roads on a mile measurement which when viewed from the air has the appearance of a checkerboard or grid. 20 Because of this standard now etched into the landscape, it is still common to refer to distance in miles, since counting the number of mile roads is easy. In contrast, in much of southern Ontario the basic survey grid was based on a mile-and-a-quarter (1.25 mi which corresponds almost exactly to a 2 kilometre grid and which makes miles no more natural than kilometres. It should be noted that.25 mi is equal to 100 chains (or 10 furlongs ) and it was that sized grid that was used in the original surveys and thus would have been more familiar. 21 22 Free trade with the United States has resulted in continued exposure to the us system. Since the United States is Canada's largest trading partner and vice versa, canadian exporters and importers must be accustomed to dealing in us customary units as well as metric. Agriculture edit canada uses an avery or imperial bushel (36.369 litres) when selling oats, wheat, help and other grains.
15 There is also a paper larger sized beer bottle which is labelled as containing.18 L (42 imperial fluid ounces; 40 us fluid ounces). 15 Some of these package sizes have been introduced since canadian metrication began; for example, the traditional Canadian soft drink can was 10 imperial fluid ounces (284 mL later marketed as 280 mL. Only in the early 1990s did the us-derived 355 mL size displace. Television sets and computer screens are also measured in inches. Standard and special fasteners like alloys, nuts, bolts, washers, studs, tapping, self drilling screw and socket screware are often"d in both imperial and metric; products range from 256 in (0.91 mm) diameter up to 4 in (100 mm). 16 Commercial usage edit supermarkets will often advertise foods such as meats and produce "per pound and small businesses are exempt from having metric scales and legally sell by the pound. While most supermarket scales display both metric and imperial units, 17 products advertised by the pound in a supermarket flyer are invariably sold to the customer (at the point of sale) based on a price "per 100 grams" or "per kilogram".
Many, but not all, products are sold in imperial sizes, but labelled in metric units. An example of this is butter, which is sold in a lined 454 gram package (and labelled as such even though it represents one pound (and in many cases is also labelled with the imperial unit). This is known as "soft metric" (as opposed to a "hard metric" system, where packages and measures are generally sold in " round numbers in a hard metric system, butter might come in a 500 g package). In restaurants, wine is usually served by the litre, 750 mL (26-imperial-fluid-ounce; 25-us-fluid-ounce) or 500 mL (18-imperial-fluid-ounce; 17-us-fluid-ounce) bottle, but a wine glass is measured in ounces. Similarly, fast food restaurants (e.g. McDonald's quarter pounder ) often advertise measurements of food and drink in us customary units, but converted to metric units, because either the containers are made to us standards, or the franchise is us-based and uses a standard size for its products. Thus in Canada a 20 us fluid ounce bottled soft drink is labelled as 591 mL (or occasionally rounded up to 600 mL). Beer in bottles continues to be 12 imperial fluid ounces (labelled as 341 mL but beer in cans is filled to 12 us fluid ounces (labelled as 355 mL).
Most outdoor thermometers display temperatures in both Fahrenheit and Celsius. Additionally, outdoor signs usually display celsius with occasional references to fahrenheit. Inside newer buildings, digital and analog thermostats display temperature settings in degrees Celsius or Fahrenheit. Environment Canada still offers an imperial unit option beside metric units. 14 Products and retail edit many food and retail products are sold according to metric units, though this is not always the case. The price of a piece of meat, for example a steak, is typically advertised per pound, but the price printed on the package is per kilogram; the latter is calculated. The prices of fruits and vegetables are usually advertised in pounds, although the price per kilogram is also displayed, usually in smaller type. More expensive items such as deli, meats, and fish are often advertised per 100 grams.
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Among the broader population, imperial units are sometimes informally used to indicate height and weight, especially by those of older generations. However, canadian driver's licences give height in centimetres. 12 13 In addition, fahrenheit is often used for cooking, as are imperial cooking measurements, due to the import of kitchen appliances from the United States. However, most appliances in Canada are labelled with degrees Celsius or are convertible, and metric cooking measures are widely available; imperial temperatures are also occasionally used outside of the kitchen, such as when measuring the water temperature in a pool. Stationery and photographic prints are also sold in sizes based on inches and the most popular paper sizes, letter and legal, are sized in imperial units. Canadian football league games continue to be played being on fields measured in yards (with a gridiron layout that measures 100.6 meters long from one goal line to the other golfers also expect courses to be measured in yards.
However newer generations are moving away from the imperial system. Experience edit The use of metric or imperial measurements varies by age and region. Canadians who have received only metric instruction in school (from the early 1970s) are more familiar with metric measurements. However metrication in the Francophone province of quebec has been more fully implemented and metric measures are more consistently used than elsewhere in Canada. The use of imperial units is more common in rural areas than in the rest of the country, where opposition to metrication was strongest, rather than in urban areas. Canadians are exposed to both metric and imperial units, and it is not unusual for there to be references to both metres and feet, acres and hectares, or grams and ounces, in the same conversation. Temperature edit despite the exclusive use of degrees Celsius in weather reports, some older Canadians still use fahrenheit.
Citation needed however, imperial measures still have legal definitions in Canada and can be used alongside metric units. 3 8 9 Common usage today edit daily usage edit canadians typically discuss the weather in degrees Celsius, purchase gasoline in litres, observe speed limits set in kilometres per hour (km/h and read road signs and maps displaying distances in kilometres. Cars have metric speedometers and odometers, although some speedometers include smaller figures in miles per hour (mph). Fuel efficiency for new vehicles is published by natural Resources Canada in litres per 100 kilometres, ( not kilometres per litre as a direct equivalent of miles per gallon ) and miles per (imperial) gallon. 10 11 Window stickers in dealer showrooms often include "miles per gallon" conversions.
The railways of Canada continue to measure their trackage in miles, and speed limits in mph. (In part this can be attributed to both cp and cn operating into the us and having bought us railroads). Canadian railcars show weight figures in both imperial and metric. Today, canadians typically use a mix of metric and imperial measurements in their daily lives. However the use of the metric and imperial systems varies according to generations. Newborns are measured in metric at hospitals, but the birth weight and length is also announced to family and friends in imperial units.
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In April 1975, fahrenheit temperatures were replaced by celsius. In September 1975, rainfall was first measured in millimetres and snow in centimetres. Since April 1976, wind speed, visibility, and barometric pressure have been in metric units, with the pressure in kilopascals instead of the hectopascals ( millibars database ) used in most of the rest of the world. In September 1977, every speed-limit sign in the country was changed from miles per hour to kilometres per hour. 6 Metrication stalled edit The election of the Progressive conservative government of Brian Mulroney in 1984 resulted in the abolition of the metric Commission on March 31, 1985. This ended the process of affirmative metrication in Canada, and some regulations requiring metric measurements either have been repealed or are no longer enforced. Training on metric conversion was not universal. Poor metrication training was a contributing factor to air Canada Flight 143, the so-called Gimli Glider, running out of fuel mid-flight on 7 Notwithstanding the end of officially sanctioned metrication in Canada, most laws, regulations, and official forms exclusively use metric measurements.
number. The metrication of gasoline and diesel fuel sales in 1979 prompted. Progressive conservative, members of Parliament to open a "freedom to measure" gas station in, carleton Place, ontario, selling gas in both imperial gallons and litres. The city of Peterborough, Ontario, was a noted hotbed of opposition to metrication, having been one of the government's three test centres for the metrication process. Bill Domm, a member of Parliament representing the riding of Peterborough, was one of the country's most outspoken opponents of metrication. During this period, a few government employees lost their jobs for their opposition to metrication. 4 neil Fraser, an official with revenue canada who publicly opposed mandatory metric conversion, was dismissed for "conduct unacceptable for a public servant." Changeover edit a long-ago metricated speed-limit sign in Bolton, Ontario, with the old "25 mph" value now showing through the 40 km/h limit Since. 5 Milk has been thoroughly metric since 1980.
3, these units have the same name and, with the exception of book capacity measures such as the gallon, the same values as, us customary units. For example, before metrication in Canada, gasoline was sold by the imperial gallon (about.55 litres ). In cross-border transactions, it was often unclear whether values"d in gallons, etc. Were referring to the us values (3.79 litres) or the imperial values of these units. That a higher price was being charged did not always resolve the matter. The, liberal federal government of, pierre Trudeau first began implementing metrication in Canada in 1970 with a government agency dedicated to implementing the project, the. Metric Commission, being established in 1971. By the mid-1970s, metric product labelling was introduced.
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The metrication logo used in Canada during the 1970s and 1980s. Metrication in Canada began in 1970 and while, canada has converted to summary the metric system for many purposes, there is still significant use of non-metric units and standards in many sectors of the canadian economy. This is mainly due to historical ties with the. United Kingdom (before metrication the traditional use of the imperial system of measurement in Canada, proximity to the. United States, and to public opposition to metrication during the transition period. 1 2, contents, before conversion edit, main article: Imperial units, until the 1970s, canada traditionally used the. Imperial measurement system, labelled as "Canadian units of measurements" under Schedule ii, section 4 of the. Weights and measures Act (R.S., 1985,.