In the chaos of the battles, armies fled in different directions, and thousands of Hindus were hacked to death by the retreating army. 50 In the sixteenth campaign, mahmud raided Gujarat and Sindh region of south Asia, and destroyed Somnath temple. Mohammed Ghori (11731206) edit mohammed Ghori raided north India and the hindu pilgrimage site varanasi at the end of the 12th century and he continued the destruction of Hindu temples and idols that had begun during the first attack in 1194. 51 Delhi sultanate edit The delhi sultanate, which extended over 320 years (12061526 ad began with raids and invasion by muhammad of Ghor. Qutb-ud-din Aibak (12061210) edit historical records compiled by muslim historian maulana hakim saiyid Abdul hai attest to the religious violence during Mamluk dynasty ruler Qutb-ud-din Aybak. The first mosque built in Delhi, the " Quwwat al-Islam " was built with demolished parts of 20 Hindu and jain temples. This pattern of iconoclasm was common during his reign.
Hayavadana, summary, girish Karnad English, summary
Swords flashed like lightning amid the blackness of clouds, and fountains of blood flowed like the fall of setting stars. Noon had not arrived when the musulmans had wrecked their vengeance on the infidel enemies of God, killing 15,000 of them, spreading them like a carpet over the ground, and making them food for beasts and birds of prey. God also bestowed upon his the sultan's friends such an amount of booty as was beyond all bounds and all calculation, including five hundred thousand slaves, beautiful men and women. To his camp, having plundered immensely, by god's aid. — Abu nasr Muhammad ibn Muhammad al Jabbaru-l 'Utbi (al-Utbi táríkh Yamini 48 Mahmud of Ghazni made at least seventeen raids into India, 49 against Hindus. Each campaign witnessed religious violence, killing of thousands of people, plunder and Mahmud returning with Hindu slaves and loot. The lives of numerous Muslims and Hindus were lost. For his sixth raid of 1008 ad, the hindu kingdoms of Ujjain, persuasive Gwaliar, kalinjar, kanauj, delhi and Ajmer formed a coalition to resist the attack by muslim army of Ghazni. Hindu females sold their jewelry and put labor into providing war supplies. The sixth war erupted in the fields of Punjab, where Ghazni troops had entered through Afghanistan. Thousands of Turk-Afghan Muslim soldiers were killed within the first hour.
King jaipal, after receiving this peace offer, assumed that peace is likely and ordered his army to withdraw from a confrontation. According to 17th century persian historian summary Firishta, jaipal refused to pay the ransom, angering Sabuktigin. An alternate account of an 11th-century historian states, instead of waiting for the ransom tribute, amir Sabuktigin and his army then attacked the kingdom of infidel Hindus. Both historians then describe the religious violence included burning the hindu villages and towns, massacre of people in numbers that Muslim historian Al Utbi in Tarikh Yamini called "beyond number demolishing of idol-temples, and the plundering of the wealth of the hindu homes and king's. 45 Mahmud of Ghazni (11th century) edit mahmud of Ghazni was a sultan who invaded the Indian subcontinent from present-day afghanistan during the early 11th century. His campaigns included plundering and destruction of Hindu temples such as those at Mathura, dwarka, and others. In 1024 ad, mahmud of Ghazni attacked and destroyed the third Somnath temple killing over 50,000 and personally destroying the Shiva lingam after stripping it of its gold. 46 47 The historian Al Utbi narrated the violence as, That infidel remained where he was, avoiding the action for a long time. The sultan would not allow him to postpone the conflict, and the friends of God commenced the action, setting upon the enemy with sword, arrow and spear,—plundering, seizing and destroying.
In the late 8th century, the army of Abu jafar al Mansur attacked Hindu kingdoms in Barada and Kashmir, and took many children and women as slaves. 43 Shia muslims and sympathizers were expelled by sunni armies after these raids. Similarly, adherents of Ali expelled Umayyad sympathizers and appointees. About 986 ad, the raids and violence from Muslim army of Sultan Yaminud Mahmud and Amir Sabuktigin reached Punjabi hindus. 44 After several battles, the hindu king jaipal sent a message to the sultan that the war be avoided. The sultan replied with presentation the message that his aim is to "obtain a complete victory suited to his zeal for the honor of Islam and Musulmans". King jaipal then sent a new message to the sultan and his Amir, stating "you have seen the impetuosity of the hindus and their indifference to death. If you insist on war in the hope of obtaining plunder, tribute, elephants and slaves, then you leave reviews us no alternative but to destroy our property, take the eyes out of our elephants, cast our families in fire, and commit mass suicide, so that all.
Vijayanagara king Krishnadevaraya looted a balakrishna temple in Udayagiri in 1514, and he looted a vittala temple in Pandharpur in 1520. Muhammad bin Qasim (early 8th century) edit The 8th century hindu martand Sun Temple in Kashmir was considered an infidel's place of worship and destroyed by delhi sultanate's Muslim armies. 35 36 In the 8th century, muslim armies attacked Hindu and Buddhist kingdoms in the northwest parts of Indian subcontinent, now modern pakistan and parts of Indian states of Gujarat, rajasthan and Punjab in the early 8th century. Muhammad bin Qasim and his army, assaulted numerous towns, plundered them for wealth, enslaved Buddhists and Hindus, and destroyed temples and monasteries. 37 In some cases, they built mosques and minarets over the remains of the original temples, such as at Debal and later in towns of Nerun and Sadusan ( Sehwan ) 38 After each battle all captured men were executed and their wives and children. One fifth of the booty and slaves were dispatched back as khums tax to hajjaj and the caliph. 39 Minor dynasties (late 8th through 10th century) edit The conflict between Hindus and Muslims in the Indian subcontinent may have begun with the Umayyad Caliphate in Sindh in 711. The state of Hindus during the Islamic expansion in India during the medieval period was characterised by destruction of temples, often illustrated by historians by the repeated destruction of the hindu temple at Somnath 40 41 and the anti-hindu practices of the mughal emperor Aurangzeb. 42 As the third fitna, fourth fitna and other civil wars raged in Arab and Persian regions, and Sunni and Shia sects attempted to consolidate their positions, the religious violence in the western and northwest parts of Indian subcontinent against Hindus and Buddhists was limited.
Summary of, hayavadana, essay - 621 Words
When in 1947 he muhammad Ali jinnah became the environment first governor General of pakistan and the new border was demarcated, gigantic riots broke out between Hindus and Muslims. — Marc Gaborieau, anthropology today 33 Religious violence was also witnessed during the portuguese rule of goa that began in 1560. 34 Hindu, buddhist and jain kingdoms (6421520) edit In early medieval India, there were numerous recorded instances of temple desecration by Indian kings against rival Indian kingdoms, involving conflict between devotees of different Hindu deities, as well as between Hindus, buddhists and jains. In 642, the pallava king essays Narasimhavarman I looted a ganesha temple in the Chalukyan capital of Vatapi. Circa 692, Chalukya armies invaded northern India where they looted temples of Ganga and Yamuna. In the 8th century, bengali troops from the buddhist Pala Empire desecrated temples of Vishnu vaikuntha, the state deity of Lalitaditya 's kingdom in Kashmir.
In the early 9th century, indian Hindu kings from Kanchipuram and the pandyan king Srimara Srivallabha looted Buddhist temples in Sri lanka. In the early 10th century, the Pratihara king Herambapala looted an image from a temple in the sahi kingdom of Kangra, which in the 10th century was looted by the Pratihara king Yasovarman. In the early 11th century, the Chola king Rajendra i looted from temples in a number of neighbouring kingdoms, including Durga and Ganesha temples in the Chalukya kingdom; Bhairava, bhairavi and Kali temples in the kalinga kingdom; a nandi temple in the eastern Chalukya kingdom;. In the mid-11th century, the Chola king Rajadhiraja plundered a temple in Kalyani. In the late 11th century, the hindu king Harsha of Kashmir plundered temples as an institutionalised activity. In the late 12th to early 13th centuries, the paramara dynasty attacked and plundered jain temples in Gujarat. 20 21 s, suryavamshi gajapati dynasty founder Kapilendra sacked the saiva and vaishnava temples in the cauvery delta in the course of wars of conquest in the tamil country.
29 During this period, buddhism declined rapidly while hinduism faced military-led and Sultanates-sponsored religious violence. 29 even those hindus who converted to Islam were not immune from persecution, which was illustrated by the muslim Caste system in India as established by ziauddin al-Barani in the fatawa-i jahandari. 30 While Alain Danielou writes that, "From the time muslims started arriving in 632. D., the history of India becomes a long monotonous series of murders, massacres, spoliations, destructions." 31 Sociologist. Ghurye writes that religious violence between Hindus and Muslims in medieval India may be presumed to have begun soon after Muslims began settling there.
32 Recurrent clashes appear in the historical record during the delhi sultanate. They continued through the mughal Empire, and then in the British colonial period. 33 During the British period, religious affiliation became an issue. Religious communities tended to become political constituencies. This was particularly true of the muslim league created in 1905, which catered exclusively for the interests of the muslims. Purely hindu organizations also appeared such as the hindu sabha (later Mahasabha) founded in 1915. In the meantime hindu-muslim riots became more frequent; but they were not a novelty: they are attested since the delhi sultanate and were already a regular feature of the mughal Empire.
Hayavadana by girish Karnad, summary analysis cau
18 Medieval India edit see also: Muslim conquests in the Indian subcontinent, persecution of Hindus, and Persecution of Muslims Historical records of religious violence are extensive for medieval India, in the form of corpus written by summary muslim historians. According to will Durant, hindus historically experienced persecution during Islamic rule of the Indian subcontinent. 19 There are also numerous recorded instances of temple desecration, by hindu, muslim and Buddhist kingdoms, desecrating Hindu, buddhist and jain temples. Lal in his book theory and Practice of Muslim State in India claims that between the years 10, the population of the Indian subcontinent decreased from 200 to 170 million. 23 he stated that his estimates were tentative and did not claim any finality. These population estimates, however, have been questioned by simon Digby 27 and Irfan Habib. 28 Will Durant calls the muslim conquest of India "probably the bloodiest story in history".
In one of the stories, the razing of stupas and viharas is mentioned with Pushyamitra. This has been for historically mapped to the reign of King Pushyamitra of the Shunga Empire about 400 years before divyavadana was written. Archeological remains of stupas have been found in deorkothar that suggest deliberate destruction, conjectured to be one mentioned in divyavadana about Pushyamitra. 15 The existence of religious violence between Hinduism and Buddhism, in ancient India, has been disputed. 16 17 It is unclear when the deorkothar stupas were destroyed, and by whom. The fictional tales of divyavadana is considered by scholars 18 as being of doubtful value as a historical record. Moriz winternitz, for example, stated, "these legends in the divyāvadāna scarcely contain anything of much historical value".
head of a nirgrantha heretic. According to Ashokavadana, as a result of this order, his own brother, vitashoka, was mistaken for a heretic and killed by a cowherd. Their ministers advised that "this is an example of the suffering that is being inflicted even on those who are free from desire" and that he "should guarantee the security of all beings". After this, Ashoka stopped giving orders for executions. 11 According. Sarao and Benimadhab Barua, stories of persecutions of rival sects by Ashoka appear to be a clear fabrication arising out of sectarian propaganda. The divyavadana (divine stories an anthology of Buddhist mythical tales on morals and ethics, many using talking birds and animals, was written in about 2nd century.
Over 2005 to 2009 period, an average of 130 people died every year from communal violence, or about.01 deaths per 100,000 population. Citation needed, the state of, maharashtra golf reported the highest total number of religious violence related fatalities over that 5-year period, while. Madhya pradesh experienced the highest fatality rate per year per 100,000 population between 208, over 2012, a total of 97 people died across India from various riots related to religious violence. 9, the world's average annual death rate from intentional violence, in recent years, has been.9 per 100,000 people. 10, contents, ancient India edit Ancient texts Ashokavadana and the divyavadana mention a non-Buddhist in Pundravardhana drew a picture showing the buddha bowing at the feet of Nirgrantha Jnatiputra (identified with Mahavira, the founder of jainism ). On complaint from a buddhist devotee, ashoka, an emperor of the maurya dynasty, issued an order to arrest him, and subsequently, another order to kill all the Ajivikas in Pundravardhana. Around 18,000 followers of the Ajivika sect were executed as a result of this order.
hayavadana, summary in Hindi by girish Karnad /
Religious violence in India includes acts of violence by followers of one religious group against followers and institutions of another religious group, often in the form of rioting. 1, religious violence in India, especially in recent times, has generally involved. Hindus and, muslims, 2 although incidents of violence have also involved atheists, christians and, sikhs. There is also a history of Muslim parsi riots (. List of riots in Mumbai ). Citation needed, despite the secular and religiously tolerant constitution of India, broad religious representation in various aspects book of society including the government, the active role played by autonomous bodies such. National Human Rights Commission of India and, national Commission for Minorities, and the ground-level work being done by non-governmental organisations, sporadic and sometimes serious acts of religious violence tend to occur as the root causes of religious violence often run deep in history, religious activities. 3 4 5 6, along with domestic organizations, international human rights organisations such. Amnesty International and, human Rights Watch publish reports 7 on acts of religious violence in India.