45 The plant, which had solar collection area of 4,700 m2 (51,000 sq ft could produce up to 22,700 L (5,000 imp gal; 6,000 US gal) per day and operate for 40 years. 45 Individual still designs include single-slope, double-slope (or greenhouse type vertical, conical, inverted absorber, multi-wick, and multiple effect. These stills can operate in passive, active, or hybrid modes. Double-slope stills are the most economical for decentralized domestic purposes, while active multiple effect units are more suitable for large-scale applications. 44 Solar water disinfection (sodis) involves exposing water-filled plastic polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles to sunlight for several hours. 46 Exposure times vary depending on weather and climate from a minimum of six hours to two days during fully overcast conditions.
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39 evaporation ponds are shallow pools that concentrate dissolved solids through evaporation. The use of evaporation ponds to obtain salt from seawater is one of the oldest applications of solar energy. Modern uses include concentrating brine solutions used in leach mining and removing dissolved solids from waste streams. 40 Clothes lines, clotheshorses, and clothes racks dry clothes through evaporation by wind and sunlight without consuming electricity or gas. In some states of the United States legislation protects the "right to dry" clothes. 41 Unglazed transpired collectors (UTC) are perforated sun-facing walls used for preheating ventilation air. Utcs can raise the incoming air temperature up to 22 C (40 F) and deliver outlet temperatures of 4560 C (113140 F). 42 The short payback period of transpired collectors (3 to 12 years) makes them a more cost-effective alternative than glazed collection systems., over 80 systems with a combined collector area of 35,000 square metres (380,000 sq ft) had been installed worldwide, including an 860 m2 (9,300 sq ft) collector in Costa. 43 Water treatment main articles: Solar still, solar water disinfection, solar desalination, and Solar Powered Desalination Unit Solar distillation can be used to make saline or brackish water potable. The first recorded instance poultry of this was by 16th-century Arab alchemists. 44 A large-scale solar distillation project was first constructed in 1872 in the Chilean mining town of Las Salinas.
It can be used effectively with partially overcast skies and will typically reach temperatures of 90150 C (194302 F). 37 Panel cookers use a reflective panel to direct sunlight onto an insulated container and reach temperatures comparable to box cookers. Reflector cookers use various concentrating geometries (dish, trough, Fresnel mirrors) to focus light on a cooking container. These cookers reach temperatures of 315 C (599 F) and above but roles require direct light to function properly and must be repositioned to track the sun. 38 Process heat main articles: Solar pond, salt evaporation pond, and Solar furnace solar concentrating technologies such as parabolic dish, trough and Scheffler reflectors can provide process heat for commercial and industrial applications. The first commercial system was the solar Total Energy Project (step) in Shenandoah, georgia, usa where a field of 114 parabolic dishes provided 50 of the process heating, air conditioning and electrical requirements for a clothing factory. This grid-connected cogeneration system provided 400 kw of electricity plus thermal energy in the form of 401 kW steam and 468 kW chilled water, and had a one-hour peak load thermal storage.
Deciduous trees and plants have been promoted as a means of controlling solar heating and cooling. When planted on the southern side of a building in the northern hemisphere or the northern side in the southern hemisphere, their leaves provide shade during the summer, while the bare limbs allow light to pass during the winter. 32 Since bare, leafless trees shade 1/3 to 1/2 of incident solar radiation, there is a balance between the benefits of summer shading and the corresponding loss of winter heating. 33 In climates with significant heating loads, deciduous trees should not be planted on the Equator-facing side of a building because they will interfere with winter solar availability. They can, however, be used on the east and west sides to provide a degree of summer shading without appreciably affecting winter solar gain. 34 cooking main article: Solar cooker Parabolic dish produces steam summary for cooking, in Auroville, india solar cookers use sunlight for cooking, drying and pasteurization. They can be grouped into three broad categories: box cookers, panel cookers and reflector cookers. 35 The simplest solar cooker is the box cooker first built by horace de saussure in 1767. 36 A basic box cooker consists of an insulated container with a transparent lid.
Thermal mass is any material that can be used to store heat—heat from the sun in the case of solar energy. Common thermal mass materials include stone, cement and water. Historically they have been used in arid climates or warm temperate regions to keep buildings cool by absorbing solar energy during the day and radiating stored heat to the cooler atmosphere at night. However, they can be used in cold temperate areas to maintain warmth as well. The size and placement of thermal mass depend on several factors such as climate, daylighting and shading conditions. When properly incorporated, thermal mass maintains space temperatures in a comfortable range and reduces the need for auxiliary heating and cooling equipment. 30 A solar chimney (or thermal chimney, in this context) is a passive solar ventilation system composed of a vertical shaft connecting the interior and exterior of a building. As the chimney warms, the air inside is heated causing an updraft that pulls air through the building. Performance can be improved by using glazing and thermal mass materials 31 in a way that mimics greenhouses.
How to write an Essay on, solar, energy
Shuman then constructed a business full-scale steam engine powered by low-pressure water, enabling him to patent the entire solar engine system by 1912. Shuman built the world's first solar thermal power station in maadi, egypt, between 19His plant used parabolic troughs to power a 4552 kilowatts (6070 hp ) engine that pumped more than 22,000 litres (4,800 imp gal; 5,800 US gal) of water per minute from the nile river to adjacent. Although the outbreak of World War i and the discovery of cheap oil in the 1930s discouraged the advancement of solar energy, shuman's vision and basic design were resurrected in the 1970s with a new wave of interest in solar thermal energy. 21 In 1916 Shuman was"d in the media advocating solar energy's utilization, saying: we have proved the commercial profit of sun power in the tropics and have more particularly proved that after our stores of oil and coal are exhausted the human race can. — Frank Shuman, new York times, water heating main articles: Solar hot water and Solar combisystem Solar water heaters facing the sun to maximize gain Solar hot water systems use sunlight to heat water.
In low geographical latitudes (below 40 degrees) from 60 to 70 of the domestic hot water use with temperatures up to 60 C can be provided by solar heating systems. 23 The most common types of solar water heaters are evacuated tube collectors (44) and glazed flat plate collectors (34) generally used for domestic hot water; and unglazed plastic collectors (21) used mainly to heat swimming pools., the total installed capacity of solar hot water. 25 China is the world leader in their deployment with 70 GWth installed as of 2006 and a long-term goal of 226 Israel and Cyprus are the per capita leaders in the use of solar hot water systems with over 90 of homes using them. 27 In the United States, canada, and Australia, heating swimming pools is the dominant application of solar hot water with an installed capacity of 18 GWth as of 2005. 19 heating, cooling and ventilation main articles: Solar heating, thermal mass, solar chimney, and Solar air conditioning In the United States, heating, ventilation and air conditioning (hvac) systems account for 30 (4.65 EJ/yr) of the energy used in commercial buildings and nearly 50 (10.1 EJ/yr) of the. 28 29 Solar heating, cooling and ventilation technologies can be used to offset a portion of this energy.
The estimate found that solar energy has a global potential of 1,57549,837 EJ per year (see table below). 4 Annual solar energy potential by region (Exajoules) 4 Region North America latin America and Caribbean Western Europe central and Eastern Europe former soviet Union Middle east and North Africa sub-Saharan Africa pacific Asia south Asia centrally planned Asia pacific oecd minimum 181.1 112.6.1. All figures given in Exajoules. Quantitative relation of global solar potential. The world's primary energy consumption : Ratio of potential. Current consumption (402 EJ) as of year:.9 (minimum) to 124 (maximum) Ratio of potential.
Projected consumption by 2050 (5901,050.52.7 (minimum) to 4784 (maximum) Ratio of potential. Projected consumption by 2100 (8801,900.81.8 (minimum) to 2657 (maximum) source: United Nations development Programme world Energy Assessment (2000) 4 Thermal energy main article: Solar thermal energy solar thermal technologies can be used for water heating, space heating, space cooling and process heat generation. 20 Early commercial adaptation In 1878, at the Universal Exposition in Paris, augustin mouchot successfully demonstrated a solar steam engine, but couldn't continue development because of cheap coal and other factors. 1917 Patent drawing of Shuman's solar collector In 1897, Frank Shuman,. Inventor, engineer and solar energy pioneer, built a small demonstration solar engine that worked by reflecting solar energy onto square boxes filled with ether, which has a lower boiling point than water, and were fitted internally with black pipes which in turn powered a steam. In 1908 Shuman formed the sun Power Company with the intent of building larger solar power plants. He, along with his technical advisor. Ackermann and British physicist Sir Charles Vernon boys, citation needed developed an improved system using mirrors to reflect solar energy upon collector boxes, increasing heating capacity to the extent that water could now be used instead of ether.
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In addition, land availability has a large effect on the available solar energy because solar panels can only be set up on land that is otherwise unused and suitable for solar panels. Roofs have been found to be a suitable place for solar cells, as many people have discovered that they can collect energy directly from their homes this way. Other areas that are suitable for solar cells are lands that are not being used for businesses where solar plants can be established. 4 Solar technologies are characterized as either passive or active depending on the way they capture, convert and distribute sunlight and enable solar energy to be harnessed at different levels around the world, mostly depending on distance from the equator. Although solar energy refers primarily to the use of biography solar radiation for practical ends, all renewable energies, other than geothermal power and Tidal power, derive their energy either directly or indirectly from the sun. Active solar techniques use photovoltaics, concentrated solar power, solar thermal collectors, pumps, and fans to convert sunlight into useful outputs. Passive solar techniques include selecting materials with favorable thermal properties, designing spaces that naturally circulate air, and referencing the position of a building to the sun. Active solar technologies increase the supply of energy and are considered supply side technologies, while passive solar technologies reduce the need for alternate resources and are generally considered demand side technologies. 19 In 2000, the United Nations development Programme, un department of Economic and Social Affairs, and World Energy council published an estimate of the potential solar energy that could be used by humans each year that took into account factors such as insolation, cloud cover.
11 12 Photosynthesis captures approximately 3,000 EJ per year in biomass. 13 The amount of diwali solar energy reaching the surface of the planet is so vast that in one year it is about twice as much as will ever be obtained from all of the earth's non-renewable resources of coal, oil, natural gas, and mined uranium. Geography affects solar energy potential because areas that are closer to the equator have a greater amount of solar radiation. However, the use of photovoltaics that can follow the position of the sun can significantly increase the solar energy potential in areas that are farther from the equator. 4 Time variation effects the potential of solar energy because during the nighttime there is little solar radiation on the surface of the earth for solar panels to absorb. This limits the amount of energy that solar panels can absorb in one day. Cloud cover can affect the potential of solar panels because clouds block incoming light from the sun and reduce the light available for solar cells.
kWh /m per day. Citation needed solar radiation is absorbed by the earth's land surface, oceans which cover about 71 of the globe and atmosphere. Warm air containing evaporated water from the oceans rises, causing atmospheric circulation or convection. When the air reaches a high altitude, where the temperature is low, water vapor condenses into clouds, which rain onto the earth's surface, completing the water cycle. The latent heat of water condensation amplifies convection, producing atmospheric phenomena such as wind, cyclones and anti-cyclones. 7 Sunlight absorbed by the oceans and land masses keeps the surface at an average temperature of. 8 by photosynthesis, green plants convert solar energy into chemically stored energy, which produces food, wood and the biomass from which fossil fuels are derived. 9 The total solar energy absorbed by earth's atmosphere, oceans and land masses is approximately 3,850,000 exajoules (EJ) per year. 10 In 2002, this was more energy in one hour than the world used in one year.
The large magnitude of solar energy available makes it a highly appealing source of electricity. United Nations development Programme in its 2000 World Energy Assessment found that the annual potential of solar energy was 1,57549,837 exajoules (EJ). This is several times larger than the total world energy consumption, which was 559.3 4 In 2011, the International Energy Agency said that "the development of affordable, inexhaustible and clean solar energy technologies will have huge longer-term benefits. It will increase countries energy security through reliance on an indigenous, inexhaustible and mostly import-independent resource, enhance sustainability, reduce pollution, lower the costs of mitigating global warming, and keep fossil fuel prices lower than otherwise. These advantages are global. Hence the additional costs of the incentives for early deployment should be considered learning investments; they must be wisely spent and need to be widely shared". 1 Contents business Potential Further information: Solar radiation The earth receives 174 petawatts (PW) of incoming solar radiation ( insolation ) at the upper atmosphere. 5 Approximately 30 is reflected back to space while the rest is absorbed by clouds, oceans and land masses.
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For the academic journal, see, solar Energy (journal). For the generation of electricity using solar energy, see. The source of Earth's solar power: the. Sun, solar energy is radiant light and heat from the. Sun that is harnessed using a range of ever-evolving technologies such as solar heating, photovoltaics, solar thermal energy, solar architecture, molten salt power plants and artificial photosynthesis. 1 2, it is an important source of renewable energy and its technologies are broadly characterized as either father's passive solar or active solar depending on how they capture and distribute solar energy or convert it into solar power. Active solar techniques include the use of photovoltaic systems, concentrated solar power and solar water heating to harness the energy. Passive solar techniques include orienting a building to the sun, selecting materials with favorable thermal mass or light-dispersing properties, and designing spaces that naturally circulate air.