She is peace in the world." 73 Recognition and reception India teresa was first recognised by the Indian government more than a third of a century earlier, receiving the padma Shri in 1962 and the jawaharlal Nehru Award for International Understanding in 1969. 74 She later received other Indian awards, including the Bharat Ratna (India's highest civilian award) in 1980. 75 Teresa's official biography, by navin Chawla, was published in 1992. 76 In Kolkata, she is worshipped as a goddess by some hindus. 77 to commemorate the 100th anniversary of her birth, the government of India issued a special 5 coin (the amount of money teresa had when she arrived in India) on President Pratibha patil said, "Clad in a white sari with a blue border, she and. Aroup Chatterjee, a physician born and raised in Calcutta who was an activist in the city's slums for years around 1980 before moving to the uk, said that he "never even saw any nuns in those slums". 79 His research, involving more than 100 interviews with volunteers, nuns and others familiar with the missionaries of Charity, was described in a 2003 book critical of Teresa. 79 Chatterjee criticized her for promoting a "cult of suffering" and a distorted, negative image of Calcutta, exaggerating work done by her mission and misusing funds and privileges at her disposal.
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68 On teresa resigned as head of the mens missionaries of Charity, and great she died on 5 September. 69 At the time of her death, the missionaries of Charity had over 4,000 sisters and an associated brotherhood of 300 members operating 610 missions in 123 countries. 70 These included hospices and homes for people with hiv/aids, leprosy and tuberculosis, soup kitchens, children's- and family-counselling programmes, orphanages and schools. The missionaries of Charity were aided by co-workers numbering over one million by the 1990s. 71 Teresa lay in repose in St Thomas, calcutta, for a week before her funeral. She received a state funeral from the Indian government in gratitude for her service to the poor of all religions in the country. 72 Teresa's death was mourned in the secular and religious communities. Prime minister of pakistan Nawaz sharif called her "a rare and unique individual who lived long for higher purposes. Her life-long devotion to the care of the poor, the sick, and the disadvantaged was one of the highest examples of service to our humanity." 73 According to former. Secretary-general javier Pérez de cuéllar, "She is the United Nations.
65 Her Missionaries of Charity grew from twelve to thousands, serving the "poorest of the poor" in 450 centres worldwide. The first Missionaries of Charity home in the United States was established in the south Bronx area of New York city, and by 1984 the congregation operated 19 establishments throughout the country. 66 Declining health and death Teresa had a heart attack in Rome in 1983 while she was visiting Pope john paul. Following a second attack in 1989, she received an artificial pacemaker. In 1991, after a bout of pneumonia in Mexico, she had additional heart problems. Although Teresa offered to resign as head of the missionaries of Charity, in a secret ballot the sisters of the congregation voted for her to stay and she agreed to continue. 67 In April 1996 she fell, breaking her collarbone, and four months later she had malaria and heart failure. Although Teresa had heart surgery, her health was clearly declining. According to Archbishop of Calcutta henry sebastian d'souza, he ordered a priest to perform an exorcism (with her permission) when she was first hospitalised with cardiac statement problems because he thought she might be under attack by the devil.
56 In 1982, at the height of the siege of beirut, teresa rescued 37 children trapped in a front-line hospital by brokering a temporary cease-fire between the Israeli army and Palestinian guerrillas. 57 Accompanied by red Cross workers, she travelled through the war zone to night the hospital to evacuate the young patients. 58 When Eastern Europe experienced increased openness in the late 1980s, teresa expanded her efforts to communist countries which had rejected the missionaries of Charity. She began dozens of projects, undeterred by criticism of her stands against abortion and divorce: "No matter who says what, you should accept it with parts a smile and do your own work." She visited Armenia after the 1988 earthquake 59 and met with nikolai ryzhkov. 60 Teresa travelled to assist the hungry in Ethiopia, radiation victims at Chernobyl and earthquake victims in Armenia. In 1991 she returned to Albania for the first time, opening a missionaries of Charity Brothers home in Tirana. 64 by 1996, teresa operated 517 missions in over 100 countries.
51 The missionaries of Charity Brothers was founded in 1963, and a contemplative branch of the sisters followed in 1976. Lay catholics and non-Catholics were enrolled in the co-workers of Mother Teresa, the sick and Suffering co-workers, and the lay missionaries of Charity. Responding to requests by many priests, in 1981 Mother Teresa founded the corpus Christi movement for Priests 52 and (with priest Joseph Langford) the missionaries of Charity fathers in 1984 53 to combine the vocational aims of the missionaries of Charity with the resources. By 2007 the missionaries of Charity numbered about 450 brothers and 5,000 sisters worldwide, operating 600 missions, schools and shelters in 120 countries. 54 International charity teresa said, "By blood, i am Albanian. By citizenship, an Indian. By faith, i am a catholic nun. As to my calling, i belong to the world. As to my heart, i belong entirely to the heart of Jesus." 4 Fluent in five languages bengali, 55 Albanian, serbian, english and Hindi she made occasional trips outside India for humanitarian reasons.
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I did not let a single tear come. 41 Missionaries of Charity in traditional saris On, teresa received Vatican permission for the dissertation diocesan congregation which would become the missionaries of Charity. 42 In her words, it would care for "the hungry, the naked, the homeless, the crippled, the blind, the lepers, all those people who feel unwanted, unloved, uncared for throughout society, people that have become a burden to the society and are shunned by everyone". 43 by 1997 the 13-member Calcutta congregation had grown to more than 4,000 sisters who managed orphanages, aids hospices and charity centres worldwide, caring for refugees, the blind, disabled, aged, alcoholics, the poor and homeless and victims of floods, epidemics and famine. 44 In 1952, teresa opened her first hospice with help from resume Calcutta officials. She converted an abandoned Hindu temple into the kalighat Home for the dying, free for the poor, and renamed it Kalighat, the home of the pure heart (Nirmal Hriday).
45 Those brought to the home received medical attention and the opportunity to die with dignity in accordance with their faith: Muslims were read the quran, hindus received water from the ganges, and Catholics received extreme unction. 46 "A beautiful death teresa said, "is for people who lived like animals to die like angels—loved and wanted." 46 Nirmal Hriday, mother Teresa's Calcutta hospice, in 2007 She opened a hospice for those with leprosy, calling it Shanti nagar (City of peace). 47 The missionaries of Charity established leprosy-outreach clinics throughout Calcutta, providing medication, dressings and food. 48 The missionaries of Charity took in an increasing number of homeless children; in 1955 Teresa opened Nirmala Shishu Bhavan, the Children's Home of the Immaculate heart, as a haven for orphans and homeless youth. 49 The congregation began to attract recruits and donations, and by the 1960s it had opened hospices, orphanages and leper houses throughout India. Teresa then expanded the congregation abroad, opening a house in Venezuela in 1965 with five sisters. 50 houses followed in Italy (Rome tanzania and Austria in 1968, and during the 1970s the congregation opened houses and foundations in the United States and dozens of countries in Asia, africa and Europe.
35 She began missionary work with the poor in 1948, 23 replacing her traditional Loreto habit with a simple, white cotton sari with a blue border. Teresa adopted Indian citizenship, spent several months in Patna to receive basic medical training at Holy family hospital and ventured into the slums. 36 37 She founded a school in Motijhil, kolkata, before she began tending to the poor and hungry. 38 At the beginning of 1949 Teresa was joined in her effort by a group of young women, and she laid the foundation for a new religious community helping the "poorest among the poor". 39 Her efforts quickly caught the attention of Indian officials, including the prime minister.
40 Teresa wrote in her diary that her first year was fraught with difficulty. With no income, she begged for food and supplies and experienced doubt, loneliness and the temptation to return to the comfort of convent life during these early months: Our Lord wants me to be a free nun covered with the poverty of the cross. Today, i learned a good lesson. The poverty of the poor must be so hard for them. While looking for a home i walked and walked till my arms and legs ached. I thought how much they must ache in body and soul, looking for a home, food and health. Then, the comfort of Loreto her former congregation came to tempt. "you have only to say the word and all that will be yours again the tempter kept on saying. Of free choice, my god, and out of love for you, i desire to remain and do whatever be your Holy will in my regard.
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28 Teresa took her solemn vows on while she was a teacher at the loreto convent school in Entally, eastern Calcutta. She served there for nearly twenty years, and was appointed its headmistress in 1944. 31 Although Teresa enjoyed teaching at the school, she was increasingly disturbed by book the poverty surrounding her in Calcutta. 32 The bengal famine of 1943 brought misery and death to the city, and the august 1946 Direct Action day began a period of Muslim-Hindu violence. 33 Missionaries of Charity main article: Missionaries of Charity missionaries of Charity motherhouse in Kolkata On 10 September 1946, teresa experienced what she later described as "the call within the call" when she travelled by train to the loreto convent in Darjeeling from Calcutta for. "I was to leave the convent and help the poor while living among them. It was an order. To fail would have been to break the faith." 34 Joseph Langford later wrote, "Though no one knew it at the time, sister Teresa had just become mother Teresa".
18 Her resolve strengthened on she prayed at the shrine of the Black madonna of Vitina-letnice, where she often went on pilgrimages. 19 Teresa left home in 1928 at age 18 to join the sisters of Loreto at Loreto Abbey in Rathfarnham, ireland, to learn English with the view of becoming a essay missionary; English was the language of instruction of the sisters of Loreto in India. 20 She never saw her mother or her sister again. 21 Her family lived in skopje until 1934, when they moved to tirana. 22 She arrived in India in 1929 23 and began her novitiate in Darjeeling, in the lower Himalayas, 24 where she learnt Bengali and taught. Teresa's School near her convent. 25 Teresa took her first religious vows on She chose to be named after Thérèse de lisieux, the patron saint of missionaries; 26 27 because a nun in the convent had already chosen that name, agnes opted for its Spanish spelling (Teresa).
Early life teresa was born Anjezë gonxhe (or Gonxha) 9 Bojaxhiu (Albanian: aɲɛzə ɡɔndʒɛ bɔjadʒiu ; Anjezë is a cognate of "Agnes gonxhe means "rosebud" or "little flower" in Albanian ) on into a kosovar Albanian family in skopje (now the capital of the. 13 14 She was baptized in skopje, the day after her birth. 9 She later considered 27 August, the day she was baptised, her "true birthday". 13 She was the youngest child of nikollë and Dranafile bojaxhiu (Bernai). 15 Her father, who was involved in Albanian-community politics in Macedonia, died in 1919 when she was eight years old. 13 16 he may have been from Prizren, kosovo, and her mother may have been from a village near Gjakova. 17 According to a biography by joan Graff Clucas, during her early years Teresa was fascinated by stories of the lives of missionaries and their service in Bengal ; by age 12, she was convinced that she should commit herself to religious life.
The congregation manages homes for people dying. Hiv/aids, leprosy and tuberculosis ; soup kitchens ; dispensaries and mobile clinics; children's- and family-counselling programmes; orphanages, and schools. Members, who take vows of chastity, poverty, and obedience, also profess a fourth vow: to give "wholehearted free service to the poorest of the poor". 8 Teresa received a number of honours, including the 1962 Ramon Magsaysay peace Prize and 1979 Nobel peace Prize. She was canonised (recognised by the church as a saint ) on 4 September 2016, and the anniversary of her death (5 September) is her feast day. A controversial figure during her life and after her death, teresa was admired by many for her charitable work. She was praised and criticised for her opposition to abortion, and criticised for poor conditions in her houses for the dying.
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This article is about Mother Teresa of mini Calcutta, catholic nun and saint. For other uses, see. Mother Teresa, known in the, roman Catholic Church as, saint Teresa of Calcutta 6 (born, anjezë gonxhe bojaxhiu, albanian: aɲɛzə ɡɔndʒɛ bɔjadʒiu ; 5 September 1997 was. Albanian, indian 4, roman Catholic nun and missionary. 7, she was born in, skopje (now the capital. Macedonia then part of the, kosovo vilayet of the Ottoman Empire. After living in Macedonia for eighteen years she moved to Ireland and then. India, where she lived for most of her life. In 1950 Teresa founded the, missionaries of Charity, a roman Catholic religious congregation which had over 4,500 sisters and was active in 133 countries in 2012.