In the absence of gravity, the bubbles will remain in the liquid even though they have been forced away from the catalyst itself. Gravity allows for the gases to easily escape from the liquid, which is critical for using the pure hydrogen and oxygen. Without the presence of gravity, no gas bubbles float to the surface and separate from the mixture instead all the gas remains to create a foam. p p This reduces the efficiency of the process dramatically by blocking the catalysts or electrodes. Engineering solutions around this problem will be key to successfully implementing technology in space with one possibility being using centrifugal forces from rotation of a spacecraft to separate the gases from the solution. p p nevertheless, thanks to this new study we are a step closer to long-duration human spaceflight.
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span span class"attribution" span class"source" Sludge G/Flickr /span, a class"license" by-sa /a /span /figcaption /figure p essay In the new study, the researchers dropped the full experimental set up for photocatalysis down a 120m a tower /a, creating an environment similar to microgravity. As objects accelerate towards Earth in free fall, the effect of gravity diminishes as forces exerted by gravity are cancelled out by equal and opposite forces due to the acceleration. This is opposite to the g forces experienced by astronauts and fighter pilots as they accelerate in their aircraft. p p The researchers managed to show that it is indeed possible to split water in this environment. However, as water is split to create gas, bubbles form. Getting rid of bubbles from the the catalyst material once formed is important bubbles hinder the process of creating gas. On Earth, gravity makes the bubbles automatically float to the surface (the water near the surface is denser than the bubbles, which makes them buyonant) freeing the space on the catalyst for the next bubble to be produced. p p In zero gravity this is not possible and the bubble will remain on or near the catalyst. However, the scientists adjusted the shape of nanoscale features in the catalyst by creating pyramid-shaped zones where the bubble could easily disengage from the tip and float off into the medium. p p But one problem remains.
p p The process can also be reversed. Hydrogen and oxygen can be brought together or recombined using a summary fuel cell returning the solar energy taken in by the photocatalysis energy which can be used to power electronics. Recombination forms only water as a product meaning the water can also be recycled. This is key to long-distance space travel. p p The process using photo catalysts is the best option for space travel as the equipment weighs much less than the one needed for electrolysis. In theory, it should work easily. This is partly because the intensity of the sunlight is far higher without the earths atmosphere absorbing large amounts on its way through to the surface. p h2 Bubble management /h2 figure class"align-left " img alt" figcaption span class"caption" Drop tower at the centre for Applied Space technology and Microgravity.
Once in space, special technology could split the water into hydrogen and oxygen which in turn could be used to sustain life or to power electronics via a cells /a. p p There are two options for doing this. One involves electrolysis as we do on Earth, using electrolytes and a cells /a to capture sunlight and convert this into a current. p figure class"align-right " img alt" figcaption span class"caption" Photo catalyst producing hydrogen gas from water. span span class"attribution" span class"source". Usher (ucl maps flickr /span, a class"license" by-sa /a /span /figcaption /figure p The alternative is to use a catalysts /a, which work by absorbing light particles photons into a semiconductor material inserted into the water. The energy of a photon gets absorbed by an electron in the material which then jumps, leaving behind a hole. The free electron can react with protons (which make up the atomic nucleus along with neutrons) in water to form hydrogen. Meanwhile, the hole can absorb electrons from water to form protons and oxygen.
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One of the main challenges with long-distance space flight is transporting enough oxygen for astronauts to breathe and enough fuel to power complex electronics. Sadly, theres only little oxygen available in space and the great distances make it hard to do quick refills. p p But now a new study, a href"m/articles/s y" published in Nature communications /a, shows that it is possible to produce hydrogen (for fuel) and oxygen (for life) from water alone using a a material /a and sunlight (or star light) in zero gravity. p figure class"align-center " img alt" figcaption span class"caption" nasa astronaut Kate rubins works with a nitrogen/Oxygen bee Recharge system tank aboard the International Space Station. The tanks are designed to be plugged into the stations existing air supply network to refill the crews breathable air supply. span span class"attribution" span /figcaption /figure p Using the unbounded resource of the sun to power our everyday life is one of the biggest challenges on Earth. As we are slowly moving away from oil towards renewable sources of energy, researchers are interested in the possibility of using hydrogen as fuel.
The best way to do this would be by splitting water (H sub 2 /sub O) into its constituents: hydrogen and oxygen. This is possible using a process known as a which involves running a current through a water sample containing some soluble a this breaks down the water into oxygen and hydrogen, which are released separately at the two electrodes. p p While this method is technically possible, it has yet to become readily available on Earth a we need more hydrogen related infrastructure /a, such as hydrogen refilling stations, to scale. p h2 Sun power /h2 p Hydrogen and oxygen produced in this way from water a also be used as fuel on a spacecraft /a. Launching a rocket with water would in fact be a lot safer than launching it with additional rocket fuel and oxygen on board, which can be explosive.
International relations has become a giant three-dimensional chess game with states and corporations as intertwined actors. p p This transformation of the global environment is probably here to stay and even accelerate. Washington a blocked /a the large Chinese telecommunications manufacturer zte from access to critical American suppliers, for example. It did this to gain advantage in trade negotiations with beijing. The Chinese sovereign wealth Fund then a its longstanding investment in the American Blackstone Group following Trumps push for economic sanctions on China.
p p we live in an era where the interplay between state and corporate power shapes the reality of international relations more than ever. In combination with the current nationalist and protectionist backlash in large parts of the world, this may yet lead to a revival of global rivalries: states using corporations to achieve geopolitical goals in an increasingly hostile environment, and powerful corporations perhaps using more aggressive strategies. If this is where were heading, it could have a lasting impact on the world order. p img src"f" alt"The conversation" width"1" height"1" / p babic receives funding from the european Research council under the european Unions Horizon 2020 research and innovation heemskerk receives funding from the european Research council under the european Unions Horizon 2020 research and innovation fichtner receives. It could be time to rethink international relations. Milan Babic, doctoral Researcher, University of AmsterdamEelke heemskerk, associate Professor Political Science, university of AmsterdamJan Fichtner, postdoctoral Researcher in Political Science, university of AmsterdamLicensed as Creative commons attribution, no of making oxygen from water in zero gravity raises hope for long-distance space travel figure img. span span class"attribution" a class"source" agencies and private companies already have advanced plans to send humans to mars in the next few years a colonising it /a. And with a growing number of discoveries of Earth-like planets around a stars /a, long-distance space travel a never seemed more exciting /a. p p However, it isnt easy for humans to survive in space for sustained periods of time.
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This has led some observers to a a potential transformation of the liberal world order through state capitalism. p p The below diagram shows the aggregated numbers of transnational state-owned enterprises or tsoes owned by each country. The nodes represent states as owners: the bigger and darker a node, the more companies it owns outside its borders (click on the picture if you presentation want to make it bigger). p figure class"align-center zoomable" a alt" figcaption span class"caption" Authors illustration based on data from Bureau van Dijks orbis database. span span class"attribution" span /figcaption /figure p Notice the paramount position of China (cn which controls over 1,000 tsoes, including the likes of Sinopec and icbc china. Countries like france (FR) and Germany (DE) are also prominent owners, but their connections to China highlight that they are targets of tsoe investment, too. p p It starts to become apparent that international relations are anything but a one-sided story of either state or corporate power. Globalisation has changed the rules of the game, empowering corporations but bringing back state power through new transnational state-corporate relations.
p p to start with offshore finance, global corporations use different jurisdictions to avoid being taxed or regulated in their home country. Lost taxes due to profit shifting a be /a as high as US500 billion globally. When states position themselves as tax havens, they undermine the ability of onshore states to tax corporations and wealthy individuals a cornerstone of state power. p p Besides tax havens, numerous eu governments have become notorious for offering a deals /a that reduce the tax burden for specific multinationals to an astonishing extent. Also, our a href" corpnet /a research group at the University of Amsterdam recently a href"m/articles/s " identified /a five countries a play /a an important additional role in facilitating tax avoidance: the uk, the netherlands, Switzerland, Ireland and Singapore. Each enables multinationals to shift investments books at minimum cost between tax havens and onshore states. p p Turning to our second example, states have grown as global corporate owners in recent years. They a href"t/isbn/ /papers/ML15-353.pdf" now control /a almost one quarter of the fortune Global 500. By investing in state-owned enterprises beyond their borders, states gain strategic leverage vis-à-vis other states or actors russias a href"ml" gas pipeline holdings /a via gazprom in eastern Europe are a good example.
a paper /a. We argued that globalisation has brought about a global structure in which state power is not the exclusive governing principle anymore. p p Just think about the private and public power of global giants like google or Apple. When Donald Trump a met /a apple chief executive tim cook to discuss how a trade war with China would affect Apples interests, it demonstrated that the leading multinationals are political actors, not bystanders. p p There always existed big and powerful global corporations the a east India company /a dominated European trade in the 1600s and 1700s, for instance. But global corporations current power position vis-à-vis other actors is unprecedented in terms of sheer size and volume. p h2 How global power works /h2 p State power did not disappear with globalisation, but it transformed. It now competes with corporations for influence and political power. States use corporations and vice versa, as the following two examples illustrate: offshore finance and transnational state-owned enterprises.
The following table ranks the 100 largest corporations and countries on word the basis of their revenues in 2016. Revenues in the case of states is mainly collected taxes. p p States occupy the top rankings, with the us first followed by China and Japan (the eurozone ranks first with more than US5,600 billion if we treat it as a single political entity). But plenty of corporations are on par with some of the largest economies in the world: Walmart exceeds Spain and Australia, for example. Of the top 100 revenue generators, our ranking shows 71 are corporations. p p figure class"align-center zoomable" a alt" figcaption span class"caption" Authors calculation based on Forbes Fortune Global. Cia world Factbook 2017. span span class"attribution" span /figcaption /figure /p p Notice also that the top ranked corporations follow the same nationality-order as states: Americas Walmart is followed by three chinese firms. There are already 14 Chinese firms in the top 100, though the us has.
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Tag:m,2011 articlesEnglish The is more powerful states or class"caption" World party. span span class"attribution" a class"source" holds the power in international politics? Most people would probably say its the largest states in the global system. The current landscape of international relations seems assignment to affirm this intuition: new a geopolitics /a, a first /a and a state-led global expansion, among others, seem to put state power back in charge after decades of globalisation. p p Yet multinationals like apple and Starbucks still wield phenomenal power. They oversee huge supply chains, sell products all over the world, and a mould /a international a " politics /a to their interests. In some respects, multinationals have governments at their beck and call witness their a success /a at dodging tax payments. So when it comes to international politics, are states really calling the shots? p p we compare states and corporations based on how deep their pockets are.