Later he came to the aid of zeus in his battle with Typhoeus, by stealing back zeus' stolen sinews. As a reward the king of the gods placed him amongst the stars as the constellation Capricorn. The mother of Aegipan, aix (the goat was perhaps associated with the constellation Capra. Sybarios was an Italian Pan who was worshipped in the Greek colony of Sybaris in Italy. The sybarite pan was conceived when a sybarite shepherd boy named Krathis copulated with a pretty she-goat amongst his herds. "The Great God Pan is dead" edit According to the Greek historian Plutarch (in de defectu oraculorum, "The Obsolescence of Oracles 32 Pan is the only Greek god (other than Asclepius ) who actually dies. During the reign of Tiberius (A.D.
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31 All of the pans edit pan could be multiplied into a swarm of Pans, and even be given individual names, as in Nonnus ' dionysiaca, where the god Pan had twelve sons that helped dionysus in his war against the Indians. Their names were kelaineus, Argennon, aigikoros, eugeneios, Omester, daphoenus, Phobos, Philamnos, xanthos, Glaukos, Argos, and Phorbas. Two other Pans were Agreus and Nomios. Both were the sons of Hermes, Agreus' mother being the nymph Sose, a prophetess: he inherited his mother's gift of prophecy, and was also a skilled hunter. Nomios' mother was Penelope old (not the same as the wife of Odysseus). He was an excellent shepherd, seducer of nymphs, and musician upon the shepherd's pipes. Most of the mythological stories about Pan are actually about Nomios, not the god Pan. Although, Agreus and Nomios could have been two different aspects of the prime pan, reflecting his dual nature as both a wise prophet and a lustful beast. Aegipan, literally "goat-Pan was a pan who was fully goatlike, rather than half-goat and half-man. When the Olympians fled from the monstrous giant Typhoeus and hid themselves in animal form, aegipan assumed the form of a fish-tailed goat.
Midas dissented and questioned the justice of the award. Apollo would not suffer such a depraved pair of ears any longer and turned Midas' ears into those of a donkey. In another version of the myth, the first round of the contest was a tie, so the competitors were forced to hold a second round. In this round, Apollo demanded that they play their instruments upside-down. Apollo, playing the lyre, was unaffected. However, pan's pipe could not be played while upside down, so Apollo won the contest. Capricornus edit The constellation Capricornus is traditionally depicted as a sea-goat, a goat with a fish's tail (see "Goatlike" Aigaion called Briareos, one of the hecatonchires ). A myth reported as "Egyptian" in Hyginus ' poetic Astronomy 29 that would seem to be invented to justify a connection of Pan with Capricorn says that when revelation Aegipan — that is Pan in his goat-god aspect — 30 was attacked by the monster Typhon. Epithets edit aegocerus "goat-horned" was an epithet of Pan descriptive of his figure with the horns of a goat.
He accomplished this by wrapping himself in a sheepskin 26 to hide his hairy black goat form, and drew her down from the year sky into the forest where he seduced her. Music edit "Sweet, piercing sweet was the music of Pan's pipe" reads the caption on the this depiction of Pan (by walter Crane ) In two late roman sources, hyginus 27 and ovid, 28 Pan is substituted for the satyr Marsyas in the theme. Pan once had the audacity to compare his music with that of Apollo, and to challenge Apollo, the god of the lyre, to a trial of skill. Tmolus, the mountain-god, was chosen to umpire. Pan blew on his pipes and gave great satisfaction with his rustic melody to himself and to his faithful follower, midas, who happened to be present. Then Apollo struck the strings of his lyre. Tmolus at once awarded the victory to Apollo, and all but Midas agreed with the judgment.
Pan also loved a nymph named Pitys, who was turned into a pine tree to escape him. Panic edit disturbed in his secluded afternoon naps, pan's angry shout inspired panic ( panikon deima ) in lonely places. 22 23 Following the titans' assault on Olympus, pan claimed credit for the victory of the gods because he had frightened the attackers. In the battle of Marathon (490 bc it is said that Pan favored the Athenians and so inspired panic in the hearts of their enemies, the persians. 24 Erotic aspects edit pan is famous for his sexual powers, and is often depicted with a phallus. Diogenes of Sinope, speaking in jest, related a myth of Pan learning masturbation from his father, hermes, and teaching the habit to shepherds. 25 Pan's greatest conquest was that of the moon goddess Selene.
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The god, still infatuated, took some of the reeds, because he could not identify which reed she became, and cut seven pieces (or according to some versions, nine joined them side by side in year gradually decreasing lengths, and formed the musical instrument bearing the name. Henceforth Pan was seldom seen without. Echo was a nymph who was a great singer and dancer and scorned the love of any man. This angered Pan, a lecherous god, and he instructed his followers to kill her. Echo was torn to pieces and spread all over earth. The goddess of the earth, gaia, received the pieces of Echo, whose voice remains repeating the last words of others.
In some versions, Echo and Pan had two children: Iambe and Iynx. In other versions, pan had fallen in love with Echo, but she scorned the love of any man but was enraptured by narcissus. As Echo was cursed by hera to only be able to repeat words that had been said by someone else, she could not speak for herself. She followed Narcissus to a pool, where he fell in love with his own reflection and changed into a narcissus flower. Echo wasted away, but her voice could still be heard in caves and other such similar places.
Pan might be multiplied as the pans (Burkert 1985, iii.3.2; Ruck and Staples, 1994,. . 132 20 ) or the paniskoi. 174) notes from scholia that Aeschylus in Rhesus distinguished between two pans, one the son of zeus and twin of Arcas, and one a son of Cronus. "In the retinue of dionysos, or in depictions of wild landscapes, there appeared not only a great Pan, but also little pans, paniskoi, who played the same part as the satyrs ". Battle with Typhon edit The goat-god Aegipan was nurtured by Amalthea with the infant zeus in Crete.
In zeus' battle with Typhon, aegipan and Hermes stole back zeus' "sinews" that Typhon had hidden away in the corycian cave. 21 Pan aided his foster-brother in the battle with the titans by letting out a horrible screech and scattering them in terror. According to some traditions, aegipan was the son of Pan, rather than his father. Nymphs edit One of the famous myths of Pan involves the origin of his pan flute, fashioned from lengths of hollow reed. Syrinx was a lovely wood- nymph of Arcadia, daughter of Landon, the river-god. As she was returning from the hunt one day, pan met her. To escape from his importunities, the fair nymph ran away and didn't stop to hear his compliments. He pursued from mount Lycaeum until she came to her sisters who immediately changed her into a reed. When the air blew through the reeds, it produced a plaintive melody.
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In some early sources such as Pindar, his father is Apollo via penelope, database the wife of Odysseus. 15 Herodotus (2.145 cicero (.22.56 Apollodorus (7.38) and Hyginus ( Fabulae 224) all make hermes and Penelope his parents. Pausanias.12.5 records the story that Penelope had in fact been unfaithful to her husband, who banished her to mantineia upon his return. Other sources ( Duris of Samos ; the vergilian commentator Servius ) report that Penelope slept with all 108 suitors in Odysseus' absence, and gave birth to pan as a result. 16 This myth reflects the folk etymology that equates Pan's name (Πάν) with the Greek word for "all" (πν). 17 In the mystery cults of the highly syncretic Hellenistic era, 18 Pan is made cognate with Phanes/Protogonos, zeus, dionysus and Eros. 19 Accounts of Pan's genealogy are so varied that it must lie buried deep in mythic time. Like other nature spirits, pan appears to be older than the Olympians, if it is true that he gave artemis her hunting dogs and taught the secret of prophecy to Apollo.
god if they had been disappointed in the chase. 11 being a rustic god, pan was not worshipped in temples or other built edifices, but in natural settings, usually caves or grottoes such as the one on the north slope of the Acropolis of Athens. These are often referred to as the cave of Pan. The only exceptions are the temple of Pan on the neda river gorge in the southwestern Peloponnese the ruins of which survive to this day and the temple of Pan at Apollonopolis Magna in ancient Egypt. 12 In the 4th century bc pan was depicted on the coinage of Pantikapaion. 13 Representations of Pan on 4th-century bc gold and silver Pantikapaion coins. Mythology edit parentage edit The parentage of Pan is unclear; 14 generally he is the son of Hermes, although occasionally in some myths he is the son of zeus, or dionysus, with whom his mother is said to be a wood nymph, sometimes Dryope.
In the 18th and 19th centuries, pan became a significant figure in the romantic movement of western Europe and also in the 20th-century neopagan movement. 4 Contents Origins edit many modern scholars consider Pan thesis to be derived from the reconstructed Proto-Indo-european god *Péh2usōn, whom these scholars believe to have been an important pastoral deity 5 ( *Péh2usōn shares an origin with the modern English word "pasture. 6 The rigvedic god Pushan is believed to be a cognate of Pan. The connection between Pan and Pushan was first identified in 1924 by the german scholar Hermann Collitz. 7 8 According to Edwin. Brown, the name pan is probably a cognate with the Greek word πάων "companion". 9 In his earliest appearance in literature, pindar 's Pythian Ode iii. 78, pan is associated with a mother goddess, perhaps Rhea or Cybele ; Pindar refers to maidens worshipping Cybele and Pan near the poet's house in boeotia.
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Mask of the god Pan, detail from a bronze stamnoid situla, 340-320 bc, part of the vassil Bojkov collection, sofia, bulgaria, in ancient literature Greek religion and mythology, pan ( /pæn/ ; 1, ancient Greek : πάν, pan ) is the god of the wild, shepherds. 2, he has the hindquarters, legs, and horns of a goat, in the same manner as a faun or satyr. With his homeland in rustic. Arcadia, he is also recognized as the god of fields, groves, wooded glens and often affiliated with sex; because of this, pan is connected to fertility and the season of spring. The ancient Greeks also considered Pan to be the god of theatrical criticism. 3, the word panic ultimately derives from the god's name. In, roman religion and myth, pan's counterpart was, faunus, a nature god who was the father. Bona dea, sometimes identified as, fauna ; he was also closely associated with. Sylvanus, due to their similar relationships with woodlands.