They need marshes to survive ( Hirschi 6-10). Small birds, such as blackbirds, sparrows, and warblers, feed and nest in marshes. Wading birds, like herons, rails, and bitterns, walk the marsh in search of food. Most marsh plants are soft stemmed and non-woody grasses or grass-like plants, such as cat tails, bulrushes, and sedges. Marsh plants provide food for muskrats, beavers, mink, fox, moose, deer, frogs, turtles, dragonflies, spiders, skunks, snakes, and many others ( Arem 348 ). There is a special type of marsh called a prairie pothole. The prairie pothole region covers part of the northern.
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There is freshwater, which marshes, swamps, and bogs belong to, and saltwater, which is comprised of salt marshes and mangrove swamps. One type of freshwater wetland is a marsh. Over 90 of all wetlands are marshes. Marshes contain a few inches to a few feet of water (Arem 348). Ducks depend on marshes for food, nesting, habitat, and shelter. They make their nests among the thick marsh plants lining small ponds or lakes. Ducks have suffered losses in population because of the destruction of wetlands. Whooping cranes realization are extremely endangered. There were as few as 29 left on the face of the planet in 1973. Thankfully their population has risen to 131 today.
Wetlands are major breeding grounds and migrating stopovers for waterfowl- ducks, geese and swans- and other birds. A magnificent array of wading and shore birds- herons, egrets, and ibis- need the wetlands. Rails, coots, and many song birds also need the wetlands. Some amphibians and many reptiles rely on for the wetlands as well as mammals. The wetlands are also shared with many insects, clams, snails, and crabs (Liptak ). Animals have many ways of getting around wetlands. Fish and frogs swim, ducks and beavers have webbed feet to paddle, and insects have shaped bodies that allow them to float or walk on the water (Arem 347). There are mainly two types of wetlands.
More animals depend on wetlands than any other ecosystem, except for the ocean (Staub 10). Wetlands collect water from rain, snow, and runoff from flooded rivers, lakes, and higher surfaces. They may also collect ground water from below ( Arem 346). Wetlands need woodlands and meadows nearby. The plants trap pollutants that would have gone into the water. Some birds roost in the trees and feed in the wetlands (Hirschi ix). There is very little oxygen in water or watery soil. Many plants get oxygen from tiny openings on their leaves above water. Others have openings in bark or roots for oxygen (Arem 347).
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Preservation of Wetlands, wetlands are in danger. We must try to help them because they are very important. They provide habitat and food for a variety of animals. They also provide the unique growing conditions needed to grow certain kinds of plants. The survival of many species depends on wetlands.
A wetland is an ecosystem in which land meets water or a piece of land that is covered with a thin layer of water at least part of the year ( Lisowski 1). Most wetlands in the continental. Are in the upper Midwest, the southern Gulf coast, and along the northeastern coastal states ( Liptak ). Wetlands business are found all over the planet. Over half of Alaska is made up of wetlands and five percent of the lower 48 states are wetlands( Arem 347). Wetlands cover six percent of the earths total land mass, yet they are among the worlds liveliest places.
With the first Earth day in 1970 environmentalism created public awareness and concern about health and ecological damage from pollution. Because modern humans are interconnected in a myriad of ways, the earth has become a global village of people sharing a common planetary environment. Attention has shifted from preserving particular landscapes or preventing pollution of a specific watershed to concern about the life-support systems of the entire world. Humans are changing planetary weather systems, increasing the extinction rate of species, and degrading ecosystems; without drastic remediation the ultimate consequences will be catastrophic. Protecting the planetary environment must become an international cause since it will take worldwide cooperation to effect the many changes necessary. Preliminary steps in this direction have been taken with the montreal Protocol, adopted by most industrial nations in 1987, which phased out the use of ozone-depleting chlorofluorocarbons.
The fledgling kyoto Protocol is another international effort attempting to mandate carbon dioxide reduction. The agreement is still weak because the United States and Australia, two of the worlds greatest emitters, refuse to sign. Twenty-first century humans have begun to comprehend that human societies can no longer act in isolation because the earth is an interconnected whole. Pollution and environmental problems are inextricably linked to poverty, injustice, oppression, and the exploitation of underdeveloped nations by greedy capitalists in industrialized countries. Only by working together to correct these historic wrongs and actively pursuing sustainable lifestyles can the planetary environment be conserved. Preservation Of Wetlands Essay, research Paper.
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This led to an environmental movement shredder as concerns broadened from preserving nature and using resources wisely to controlling and reducing pollution. Two pioneers of the environmental movement were david Brower and Barry commoner. Brower, while serving as the executive director of the sierra Club, introduced many of the techniques now characteristic of modern environmentalism. These include litigation, intervention in regulatory hearings, and using the mass media for publicity campaigns. Commoner, a biologist, used scientific research to reveal connections among science, technology, the ecosphere, and society. Both activism and research remain defining characteristics of the modern environmental movement. By the 1970s, the movement had expanded from wilderness protection and pollution problems to include human population growth, nuclear power, fossil fuel extraction and use, and recycling.
In order to preserve its pristine wilderness, john muir fought for and achieved the establishment of Yosemite as a writer state park in 1864, later incorporating additional land to become a national Park in 1890. He was also instrumental in having Kings Canyon preserved until it also achieved National Park status. When the national Park service was established in 1916, it was headed by one of muirs disciples, guaranteeing that his ideals of attempting to preserve pristine wildernesses in their purest, unaltered state would become a guiding principle. This philosophy is often at odds with the forest Service. Contemporary environmentalists have moved beyond the simple preservation of nature to embrace problems adversely affecting the health and wellbeing of all species, particularly humans. Air and water pollution began to become problematic during and particularly after World War ii as a result of industrial expansion, greater use of toxic chemicals, and increased automotive traffic. One of the first books to awaken public awareness to the deleterious effects of noxious chemicals in the environment was Silent Spring by rachel Carson, published in 1962.
now living. According to this viewpoint, there is as much waste in neglecting to develop and utilize natural resources as there is in their wanton destruction. This approach is still evident in the multiple-use policies of the forest Service. Muir, believing utilitarian conservation to be too anthropocentric, strenuously opposed Pinchots influence and policies. Muir espoused the more biocentric viewpoint that all living organisms are imbued with intrinsic rights and deserve to live in nature, whether or not they are useful to humans. Every organism, as part of an ecological web, is not only entitled to continuance, but is essential to the integrity and stability of the biotic community. According to this viewpoint, humans are a miniscule component of nature; as such they have no right to value themselves above other species with whom they coexist. Humans are primarily a negative influence on nature.
George perkins Marsh, who had witnessed the damage caused by excessive grazing and deforestation around the mediterranean, became alarmed by the profligate waste of resources occurring on the American frontier in the mid-nineteenth century. In business 1864, he published Man and Nature, warning of the unfortunate ecological consequences of this wanton destruction. This book had several lasting impacts, including the establishment of the national Forest Service in 1873 to protect dwindling timber supplies and endangered watersheds. In 1905, President Theodore roosevelt, influenced by marshs book, moved the forest Service from the department of the Interior to the department of Agriculture, and made his chief conservation adviser, gifford Pinchot, the new head. This decision situated resource management on a straightforward, rational, and scientific basis. Together with naturalist John muir, first president of the sierra Club, roosevelt and Pinchot passed game protection laws, restructured the national park system, and reconstituted forest and wildlife refuge systems. These policies were primarily pragmatic. They believed that forests should be saved, not for aesthetic reasons or out of concern about wildlife, but to provide homes and jobs for people.
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Conservation and Preservation of Nature Essay on Conservation and Preservation of Nature In the twenty-first century, as a result of global warming, environmentalism has adopted a more inclusive, planetary view. Human abuse of nature is almost as old as recorded history. Plato lamented land degradation due to hills being denuded for lumber. Eighteenth century French and British colonial administrators understood the link between deforestation, soil erosion, and local climate change. We will write a custom essay sample. Preservation of Nature or any similar topic specifically for you. Stephen Hales, a british plant physiologist, instigated the practice of reserving 20 percent of all green plants to preserve rainfall on the caribbean island of Tobago. Pierre poivre, french governor of mauritius, appalled by forest and wildlife devastation, ordered one-fourth of the island to be preserved in woodlands. In America, conservation commenced as a pragmatic response to the excesses imbued by the nineteenth century limitless frontier mentality.