Paper is identified as either grain short (grain is parallel to paper's short side) or grain long (grain is parallel to the paper's long side depending on how the paper is cut. A paper mill may indicate paper grain on carton and ream labels, product brochures, swatch books and price lists in several ways: you may see the words Grain Long or Grain Short. The dimension parallel to the grain may be underscored. For example,.5x11 indicates long grain, while 11x17 indicates short grain. "M" may be used to indicate machine direction, for example, 11Mx17 indicates short grain. Folded Documents, fold paper parallel to the grain direction. Paper folded against the grain may be rough and crack along the folded edge. The heavier the paper, the more likely roughness and cracking will occur.
Short Grain Contest —, grain, magazine
in binding and finishing, the post term grain refers to an artificial or exaggerated grain pattern imparted to binding materials, commonly by embossing. In photography, grain is used to refer to the size of the particles—or, in other seattle words, the visual texture—forming the exposed image. The size of the grain (be it fine grain or coarse grain ) determines not only how visible or "grainy" the image ultimately is, but also the smallest size of the image which can be recorded. In platemaking, the term grain refers to the irregular surface texture of a lithographic plate. Supplies consumables, paper Resource centre, don't go against the Grain. Being knowledgeable about paper grain and ways you can ensure your documents are "going with the flow" will pay off in document quality. You'll also maximize both your paper and printing investments by avoiding costly reprints. You'll find the paper grain basics here, as well as specific instructions for proper grain direction in certain types of documents. What is paper grain? A paper's grain is the direction in which most of the fibers lie. Grain is determined during the papermaking process, when fibers tend to align in one direction or the other.
There are a variety of ways of determining the grain direction in a particular sheet of paper. One test is to moisten one side of a paper square. It will curl toward its dry paper side, and the two opposite edges that curl up will be parallel to the grain direction. Another test is to cut two long, thin strips at right angles to each other from the same sheet. Put one strip on top of the other, align them, and hold them together between the thumb and forefinger from the short edges, letting them dangle. Then, turn them over. When on the bottom, the short-grain strip will bend toward the ground more than the long-grain strip. Bursting Test and, tensile test.
Therefore, the thesis direction of greater dimensional change will be in the cross-grain direction. Long-grain paper is generally preferred to short-grain paper for offset lithography, as the total dimensional change due to moisture will be less if the expansion is in the shorter dimension. This is an important consideration when separate colors in multiple-color jobs need to align properly. In some cases, however (primarily in black-and-white and single-color jobs short-grain paper is preferred, as register is not a concern. In addition, since paper is stronger against the grain, paper that is fed into the press against its grain will be less likely list to suffer from structural deformities such as curling, stretching, or waffling as a result of tensile forces. When pages are to be bound, as in books and catalogs, the grain should be parallel to the binding edge. Pages bound with the grain perpendicular to the binding edge do not lie flat or turn easily.
Also called grain-short, term for a sheet of paper having its grain direction parallel to the shorter sheet dimension. (Paper with its grain direction parallel to the longer dimension of the sheet is called long-grain.) Whether a paper is long-grain or short-grain paper is an important consideration in many printing processes, as the grain direction affects printability and runnability, especially in connection with sheet. The direction of fibers in a sheet or web of paper, generated during paper formation. As paper moves forward along the forming wire on a papermaking machine, the fibers align themselves in a direction parallel to the direction of wire travel through the machine (also called machine direction ). When paper is cut into sheets, it will be either long-grain (or grain-long ) if the fibers are aligned parallel to the sheet's longer dimension, or short-grain (or grain-short if the fibers are aligned parallel to the sheet's shorter dimension. Paper will tear and fold more easily with the grain and with greater difficulty against the grain. Grain direction is an important consideration in printing processes such as sheetfed offset lithography (in particular multiple-color work especially in connection with dimensional stability, or how well a particular sheet of paper will retain its original length and width upon exposure to moisture. When paper fibers absorb water, they will expand in width, but not in length.
Volume 10 - about, paper Grain
Sometimes you can identify grain direction by the pattern of the material you use. That happens with some sorts of cardboard and Japanese paper. Obviously, the last two methods make an irreversible damage to your material; therefore, they couldnt be used if you have only so much paper or cardboard. For almost all my projects I prefer bending paper and cardboard. That said, Ill illustrate what happens with grain direction when you fold A4 (210 by 297 millimeters /.27 in 11.7 in) and A3 (twice as large as A4) sheets. I suppose that A4 and A3 sheets usually have a long winter grain.
A4 paper, Grain Long, a5 sized quire, grain Short (wrong). Out of a standard A4 piece of paper you may bind a book with page size similar to A6 (quarter of A4). But A5-sized (half of A4) quires would have a wrong grain direction. A3 paper, Grain Long, a4-sized quire, grain Short (wrong a5-sized quire, grain Long (right) to bind a book with dimensions similar to A5 you have to take a3 paper and fold it two times in quarter. Than the grain direction would be long once again. As a bonus, here is a video by an Egyptian book conservator Sherif Afifi: good luck with your projects! And may the grain go in the right direction!
Method works well for thicker papers and cardboard, however you can try to apply it to a thinner paper. Determining grain direction by bending a sheet of paper. Applying moisture to a side of paper, you will make it wave or curl. If the whole moistened side starts to curl upwards or downwards, that means grain goes along that side. If the side becomes wavy, grain follows perpendicular direction. Determining grain direction by moistening a sheet of paper.
When you tear the paper against the grain, fibers do not allow the tear to go straight. Instead, you get a sort of zigzagged tear. Paper and cardboard also tend to flake when torn against the grain. Tearing along the grain gives you almost a straight tear. When folding along the grain, youll get an almost smooth fold. Folding against the grain may result in cracks and even tears (depending on paper). That happens because fibers are aligned perpendicular to the fold and you break them folding the sheet.
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Folding paper with wrong grain direction (not going along the grain) may result in cracks and other damage business to paper. Grain direction should go along the spine. That remains the same for all the different elements of the book: pages (sheets barbing spine lining, endleaves, covers, and any other paper and cardboard materials you use. You should also mind the grain direction during other processes, like box-making. How to find Paper Grain Direction? I will list five different ways to determine grain direction even while i prefer binding paper and cardboard to other methods: Paper and cardboard offer noticeably more resistance in one direction than the other. That resistance comes from grain springing. Grain direction goes along the curve of least resistance.
Pages may also resist turning if the grain direction is wrong. In wet conditions wrong grain direction may result in damaging the spine and braking the book structure. That can novel happen even during gluing or pasting the book. Glue may penetrate along the grain direction from the spine inside the book block. Book may not open properly if it is bound with wrong grain direction. Pages may curl and flare, edges may become wavy. Cross-grain layouts may also lead to problems (e.g. Covers have grain direction that is different to grain direction of paper).
check the grain direction by experiment before proceeding to any further steps. It is very important to know the grain direction because paper and cardboard stretches and bends differently along and against the grain. In wet conditions (including glue application) paper products tend to wave (with curls going along the grain). Wrong grain direction is often chosen for large print projects. Cutting a sheet of paper in the wrong direction may save you up to 10 of paper or even more. However, wrong grain direction makes book less usable and even leads to structural damage and early deterioration: When you turn the pages, they tend to bend a bit. If you have wrong paper grain direction, there is a higher chance of fractures or tears.
Handmade paper and some other sorts and brands of paper may have short grain (grain parallel to the short side). Sometimes grain direction may be much less noticeable or even almost undefined. Markings on the production packaging should help you finding the grain direction. There are several standard ways to mark the direction: With words, grain Long or, grain Short. Underscoring one of the dimensions: 10 15 means short grain, 21 7 indicates long grain. Sometimes machine direction may be marked presentation like this: 33,1M46,8, which indicates short grain. One more way to mark the grain direction is by ordering the dimensions. . The last one gives you the dimension: for the 1015 the grain is long, and 1510 sheet has a short grain.
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We have a pretty thorough list of tutorials and bookbinding instructions here. At least if you are interested in case binding and some non-adhesive types of bindings. Today we start posting new tutorials. Sometimes they would cover some very small steps of bookbinding process. Paper and cardboard grain is something many novice bookbinders forget to take into consideration. Many types of paper have a distinctive grain direction due to their margaret production processes. Paper consists of fibers of cellulose pulp (with or without some additives pressed together while moistened. Direction of these fibers determines paper grain direction. Grain Direction Marking, paper manufactured by major producers usually has a long grain, that is to say, parallel to the long side of the sheet.