It was in this type of terrain that aerial attacks were used with limited effectiveness. French made mirage 2000H of the iaf were tasked to drop laser-guided bombs to destroy well-entrenched positions of the pakistani forces. 23 The iaf lost a mig-27 strike aircraft, which it attributed to an engine failure, and a mig-21 fighter which was shot down by pakistan; initially pakistan said it shot down both jets after they crossed into its territory. 90 One Indian mi-8 helicopter was also lost due to Stinger sams. Nachiketa developed engine trouble in the batalik sector and bailed out of his craft. Sqn Ldr Ajay ahuja went out of his way to locate his comrade but was shot down by a shoulder-fired Stinger missile.
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Iaf mig-21s were used extensively in the kargil War. Once India regained control of the hills overlooking nh 1D, the Indian Army turned to driving the invading force back across the line of Control. The battle of Tololing, amongst other assaults, slowly tilted the combat in India's favour. The pakistani troops at Tololing were aided by pakistani fighters from Kashmir. Some of the posts put up a stiff resistance, including Tiger Hill (Point 5140) that fell only later in the war. Indian troops found well-entrenched pakistani soldiers at Tiger Hill, and both sides suffered heavy casualties. After a final assault on the peak in which ten pakistani soldiers and five indian soldiers were killed, tiger Hill finally fell. A few of the assaults occurred atop hitherto unheard of peaks most of them unnamed with only point numbers to differentiate them which witnessed fierce hand to hand combat. As the operation was fully underway, about 250 artillery guns were brought relationships in to clear the infiltrators in the posts that were in the line-of-sight. The bofors fh-77B field howitzer played a vital role, with Indian gunners making maximum use of the terrain. However, its success was limited elsewhere due to the lack of space and depth to deploy.
The majority of lined posts along the line of Control were adjacent to the highway, and therefore the recapture of nearly every infiltrated post increased both the territorial gains and the security of the highway. The protection of this route and the recapture of the forward posts were thus ongoing objectives throughout the war. The Indian Army's first priority was to recapture peaks that were in the immediate vicinity of. This resulted in Indian troops first targeting the tiger Hill and Tololing complex in Dras, which dominated the Srinagar-Leh route. 87 This was soon followed by the batalik-turtok sub-sector which provided access to siachen Glacier. Some of the peaks that were of vital strategic importance to the pakistani defensive troops were point 4590 and point 5353. While 4590 was the nearest point that had a view of nh 1D, point 5353 was the highest feature in the Dras sector, allowing the pakistani troops to observe. 88 The recapture of point 4590 by Indian troops on 14 June was significant, notwithstanding the fact that it resulted in the Indian Army suffering the most casualties in a single battle during the conflict. 89 Though most of the posts in the vicinity of the highway were cleared by mid-June, some parts of the highway near Drass witnessed sporadic shelling until the end of the war.
India attacks pakistani positions The terrain of Kashmir is mountainous and at high altitudes; even the best roads, such as National Highway 1D from Leh to Srinagar, are only two lanes. The rough terrain and narrow roads slowed down traffic, and the high altitude, which affected the ability of aircraft to carry loads, made control of nh 1D (the actual stretch of the highway which was under pakistani fire) a priority for India. From their observation posts, the pakistani forces had a clear line-of-sight to lay down indirect artillery fire on nh 1d, inflicting heavy casualties on the Indians. 83 This was a serious problem for the Indian Army as the highway was the main logistical and supply route. 84 The pakistani shelling of the arterial road posed the threat of Leh being cut off, though an alternative (and longer) road to leh existed via himachal Pradesh. Indian soldiers after winning a battle during the kargil yardage War The infiltrators, apart from being equipped with small arms and grenade launchers, were also armed yardage with mortars, artillery and anti-aircraft guns. Many posts were also heavily mined, with India later stating to have recovered more than 8,000 anti-personnel mines according to an icbl report. 85 pakistan's reconnaissance was done through unmanned aerial vehicles and AN/tpq-36 Firefinder radars supplied by the. 86 The initial Indian attacks were aimed at controlling the hills overlooking nh 1D, with high priority being given to the stretches of the highway near the town of Kargil.
In effect, two divisions of the Indian Army, 73 numbering 20,000, plus several thousand from the paramilitary forces of India and the air force were deployed in the conflict zone. The total number of Indian soldiers that were involved in the military operation on the kargil-Drass sector was thus close to 30,000. The number of infiltrators, including those providing logistical backup, has been put at approximately 5,000 at the height of the conflict. This figure includes troops from pakistan-administered Kashmir who provided additional artillery support. The Indian Air Force launched Operation Safed Sagar in support of the mobilisation of Indian land forces, but its effectiveness during the war was limited by the high altitude and weather conditions, which in turn limited bomb loads and the number of airstrips that could. Naval action The Indian navy also prepared to blockade the pakistani ports (primarily the karachi port ) 74 to cut off supply routes under Operation Talwar. The Indian navy's western and eastern fleets joined in the north Arabian sea and began aggressive patrols and threatened to cut pakistan's sea trade. This exploited pakistan's dependence on sea-based oil and trade flows. Later, then- Prime minister of pakistan, nawaz sharif disclosed that pakistan was left with just six days of fuel to sustain itself if a full-scale war had broken out.
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The next stage consisted of India discovering the infiltration and mobilising forces to respond. The final stage involved major battles by Indian and pakistani forces resulting in India recapturing most of the territories 64 65 held by pakistani forces and the subsequent withdrawal of pakistani forces back across the line of Control after international pressure. Occupation by pakistan Infiltration and military build-up During February 1999, the pakistan Army sent forces to occupy some posts on the Indian side of the loc. 66 Troops from the elite Special Services Group as well as four to seven battalions 67 68 of the northern Light Infantry (a paramilitary regiment not part of the regular pakistani army at that time) covertly and overtly set up bases on the vantage points. According to some reports, these pakistani forces were backed by kashmiri guerrillas and Afghan mercenaries. 69 According to general Ved Malik, the bulk of the infiltration occurred in April human 1999. 70 pakistani intrusions took place in the heights of the lower Mushkoh Valley, along the marpo la ridgeline in Dras, in kaksar near Kargil, in the batalik sector east of the Indus river, on the heights above of the Chorbatla sector where the loc turns.
India discovers infiltration and mobilises Initially, these incursions were not detected for a number of reasons: Indian patrols were not sent into some of the areas infiltrated by the pakistani forces and heavy artillery fire by pakistan in some areas provided cover for the infiltrators. But by the second week of may, the ambushing of an Indian patrol team led by capt saurabh Kalia, who acted on a tip-off by a local shepherd in the batalik sector, led to the exposure of the infiltration. 71 Initially, with little knowledge of the nature or extent of the infiltration, the Indian troops in the area assumed that the infiltrators were jihadis and claimed that they would evict them within a few days. Subsequent discovery of infiltration elsewhere along the loc, and the difference in tactics employed by the infiltrators, caused the Indian army to realise that the plan of attack was on a much bigger scale. The total area seized by the ingress is generally accepted to between 130 km 200 km; The government of India responded with Operation Vijay, a mobilisation of 200,000 Indian troops. However, plan because of the nature of the terrain, division and corps operations could not be mounted; subsequent fighting was conducted mostly at the regimental or battalion level.
50 According to India's then army chief Ved Prakash Malik, and many scholars, 51 52 much of the background planning, including construction of logistical supply routes, had been undertaken much earlier. On several occasions during the 1980s and 1990s, the army had given pakistani leaders ( zia ul Haq and Benazir Bhutto ) similar proposals for infiltration into the kargil region, but the plans had been shelved for fear of drawing the nations into all-out war. Some analysts believe that the blueprint of attack was reactivated soon after Pervez musharraf was appointed chief of army staff in October 1998. 45 56 After the war, nawaz sharif, prime minister of pakistan during the kargil conflict, claimed that he was unaware of the plans, and that he first learned about the situation when he received an urgent phone call from Atal Bihari vajpayee, his counterpart. 57 Sharif attributed the plan to musharraf and "just two or three of his cronies 58 a view shared by some pakistani writers who have stated that only four generals, including Musharraf, knew of the plan. 53 59 Musharraf, however, asserted that Sharif had been briefed on the kargil operation 15 days ahead of Vajpayee's journey to lahore on 20 February.
60 War progress Further information: Kargil order of battle conflict events Date (1999) event may pakistani intrusion in Kargil reported by local shepherds 5 may indian Army patrol sent up; five indian soldiers captured and tortured to death. 9 may heavy shelling by pakistan Army damages ammunition dump in Kargil 10 may infiltrations first noticed in Dras, kaksar, and Mushkoh sectors Mid-may indian Army moves in more troops from Kashmir Valley to kargil Sector 26 may iaf launches air strikes against infiltrators. Flt Lt Nachiketa taken pow 28 may iaf mi-17 shot down by pakistan; four air crew dead 1 June pakistan steps up attacks; bombs nh 1A 5 June Indian Army releases documents recovered from three pakistani soldiers indicating pakistan's involvement 6 June Indian Army launches. President Bill Clinton, in a telephonic conversation, asks pakistani Prime minister Nawaz sharif to pull out from Kargil 29 June Indian Army captures two vital posts: point 5060 and point 5100 near Tiger Hill 2 July Indian Army launches three-pronged attack in Kargil 4 July. Sharif announces pakistani army's withdrawal from Kargil following his meeting with Clinton 7 July India recaptures Jubar heights in Batalik 11 July pakistan begins pullout; India captures key peaks in Batalik 14 July Indian Prime minister Atal Bihari vajpayee declares Operation Vijay a success. Government sets condition for talks with pakistan 26 July kargil conflict officially comes to an end. Indian Army announces complete eviction of pakistani intruders. There were three major phases to the kargil War. First, pakistan infiltrated forces into the Indian-controlled section of Kashmir and occupied strategic locations enabling it to bring NH1 within range of its artillery fire.
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During the winter of 19981999, some elements of the pakistani Armed Forces were covertly training and sending pakistani troops and paramilitary forces, some allegedly in database the guise of mujahideen, into territory on the Indian side of the loc. The infiltration was codenamed "Operation Badr its aim was to sever the link between Kashmir and Ladakh, and cause Indian forces to withdraw from the siachen Glacier, thus forcing India to negotiate a settlement of the broader Kashmir dispute. Pakistan also believed that any tension in the region would roles internationalise the kashmir issue, helping it to secure a speedy resolution. Yet another goal may have been to boost the morale of the decade-long rebellion in Indian Administered Kashmir by taking a proactive role. Pakistani lieutenant general Shahid aziz, and then head of isi analysis wing, has confirmed there were no mujahideen but only regular pakistan Army soldiers who took part in the kargil War. 48 "There were no mujahideen, only taped wireless messages, which fooled no one. Our soldiers were made to occupy barren ridges, with hand held weapons and ammunition Lt Gen aziz wrote in his article in The nation daily in January 2013. 49 Some writers have speculated that the operation's objective may also have been retaliation for India's Operation Meghdoot in 1984 that seized much of siachen Glacier.
33 With tactically vital features and well-prepared defensive posts atop the peaks, a suu defender on the high ground would enjoy advantages akin to a fortress. Any attack to dislodge a defender from high ground in mountain warfare requires a far higher ratio of attackers to defenders, 34 and the difficulties would be exacerbated by the high altitude and freezing temperatures. 35 Kargil is just 173 km (107 mi) from the pakistani-controlled town of skardu, which was capable of providing logistical and artillery support to pakistani combatants. A road between Kargil and skardu exists, which was closed in 1949. 36 Background After the Indo-pakistani war of 1971, there had been a long period with relatively few direct armed conflicts involving the military forces of the two neighbours notwithstanding the efforts of both nations to control the siachen Glacier by establishing military outposts on the. 37 During the 1990s, however, escalating tensions and conflict due to separatist activities in Kashmir, some of which were supported by pakistan, as well as the conducting of nuclear tests by both countries in 1998, led to an increasingly belligerent atmosphere. In an attempt to defuse the situation, both countries signed the lahore declaration in February 1999, promising to provide a peaceful and bilateral solution to the kashmir conflict.
defeat in the Indo-pakistani war of 1971, the two nations signed the simla Agreement promising not to engage in armed conflict with respect to that boundary. 29 The town of Kargil is located 205 km (127 mi) from Srinagar, facing the northern Areas across the loc. 30 like other areas in the himalayas, kargil has a temperate climate. Summers are cool with frigid nights, while winters are long and chilly with temperatures often dropping to 48 C (54 F). 31 An Indian national highway ( nh 1D ) connecting Srinagar to leh cuts through Kargil. The area that witnessed the infiltration and fighting is a 160 km long stretch of ridges overlooking this only road linking Srinagar and Leh. 23 The military outposts on the ridges above the highway were generally around 5,000 metres (16,000 ft) high, with a few as high as 5,485 metres (18,000 ft). 32 Apart from the district capital, kargil, the populated areas near the front line in the conflict included the mushko valley and the town of Drass, southwest of Kargil, as well as the batalik sector and other areas, northeast of Kargil. Kargil was targeted partly because the terrain was conducive to the preemptive seizure of several unoccupied military positions.
During the initial stages of the war, pakistan blamed the fighting entirely on independent Kashmiri insurgents, but documents left behind by casualties and later statements by pakistan's, prime minister and. Chief of Army Staff showed involvement of pakistani paramilitary forces, led by general, ashraf Rashid. 27 The Indian Army, general later supported by the Indian Air Force, recaptured a majority of the positions on the Indian side of the loc infiltrated by the pakistani troops and militants. Facing international diplomatic opposition, the pakistani forces withdrew from the remaining Indian positions along the loc. The war is one of the most recent examples of high-altitude warfare in mountainous terrain, which posed significant logistical problems for the combating sides. It is one of the very few instances of direct, conventional warfare between nuclear states (i.e., those possessing nuclear weapons ). India had conducted its first successful test in 1974 ; pakistan, which had been developing its nuclear capability in secret since around the same time, conducted its first known tests in 1998, just two weeks after a second series of tests by India. Contents Location Before the partition of India in 1947, kargil was part of the baltistan district of Ladakh, a sparsely populated region with diverse linguistic, ethnic and religious groups, living in isolated valleys separated by some of the world's highest mountains.
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"Operation Vijay (1999 redirects here. For the 1961 Indian operation, see. The, kargil father's War hindi :, kargil yuddh, urdu : kargil jang also known as the, kargil conflict, was an armed conflict between. India and, pakistan that took place between may and July 1999 in the. Kargil district of, kashmir and elsewhere along the, line of Control (LOC). In India, the conflict is also referred. Operation Vijay hindi :, literally "Victory which was the name of the Indian operation to clear the kargil sector. 22, the cause of the war was the infiltration of pakistani soldiers disguised as Kashmiri militants into positions on the Indian side of the loc, 23 which serves as the de facto border between the two states.