In accordance with custom he was required to defend his work before appointed examiners acting as "devil's advocates". He left before knowing the outcome of this process. 25 Expedition edit Greenland expedition, julyOctober 1888 Dotted line shows approach of Jason, to 17 July. Continuous line shows drift of Nansen's party southward to 29 July, and the boat journey northward to Umivik the originally planned crossing route, from Sermilik to Christianhaab Actual crossing route to godthaab, 15 August to 3 October On, nansen's party was picked up from the. A week later the Greenland coast was sighted, but progress was hindered by thick pack ice. On 17 July, with the coast still 20 kilometres (12 mi; 11 nmi) away, nansen decided to launch the small boats; they were within sight of the sermilik fjord, which Nansen believed would offer a route up on to the icecap.
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The chances are ten to one that he will. Uselessly throw his own and perhaps others' lives away". 22 The norwegian parliament refused to provide financial support, believing that such a potentially risky undertaking should not be encouraged. The project was eventually launched with a donation from a danish businessman, augustin Gamél; the essay rest came mainly from small contributions from Nansen's countrymen, through a fundraising effort organised by students at the university. 23 Despite the adverse publicity, nansen received numerous applications from would-be adventurers. He wanted expert skiers, and attempted to recruit from the skiers of Telemark, but his approaches were rebuffed. 24 Nordenskiöld had advised Nansen that Sami people, from Finland in the far north of Norway, were expert snow travellers, so nansen recruited a pair, samuel Balto and Ole nielsen ravna. The remaining places went to Otto sverdrup, a former sea-captain who had more recently worked as a forester; Oluf Christian dietrichson, an army officer, and Kristian Kristiansen, an acquaintance of sverdrup's. All had experience of outdoor life in extreme good conditions, and were experienced skiers. 25 Just before the party's departure, nansen attended a formal examination at the university, which had agreed to receive his doctoral thesis.
Both had set out from Disko bay on the western coast, and had travelled about 160 kilometres (100 mi) eastward before turning back. 17 by contrast, nansen proposed to summary travel from east to west, ending rather than beginning his trek at Disko bay. A party setting out from the inhabited west coast would, he reasoned, have to make a return trip, as no ship could be certain of reaching the dangerous east coast and picking them. 18 by starting from the east—assuming that a landing could be made there—nansen's would be a one-way journey towards a populated area. The party would have no line of retreat to a safe base; the only way to go would be forward, a situation that fitted Nansen's philosophy completely. 19 Nansen rejected the complex organisation and heavy manpower of other Arctic ventures, and instead planned his expedition for a small party of six. Supplies would be manhauled on specially designed lightweight sledges. Much of the equipment, including sleeping bags, clothing and cooking stoves, also needed to be designed from scratch. 20 These plans received a generally poor reception in the press; 21 one critic had no doubt that "if the scheme be attempted in its present form.
He was to spend the next six years of his life there—apart from a six-month sabbatical tour of Europe—working and studying with leading figures such as Gerhard Armauer Hansen, the discoverer of the leprosy bacillus, 14 and Daniel Cornelius Danielssen, the museum's director who had. 15 Nansen's chosen area of study was the then relatively unexplored field of neuroanatomy, specifically the central nervous system of lower marine creatures. Before leaving for his sabbatical in February 1886 he published a paper summarising his research to date, in which he stated that "anastomoses or unions between the different ganglion cells" could not be demonstrated with certainty. This unorthodox view was confirmed by the simultaneous researches of the embryologist plan Wilhelm His and the psychiatrist August Forel. Nansen is considered the first Norwegian defender of the neuron theory, originally proposed by santiago ramón y cajal. His subsequent paper, The Structure and Combination of Histological Elements of the central Nervous System, published in 1887, became his doctoral thesis. 16 Crossing of Greenland edit Planning edit Adolf Erik nordenskiöld, whose 1883 expedition had penetrated 160 kilometres (100 mi; 90 nmi) into the Greenland icecap The idea of an expedition across the Greenland icecap grew in Nansen's mind throughout his Bergen years. In 1887, after the submission of his doctoral thesis, he finally began organising this project. Before then, the two most significant penetrations of the Greenland interior had been those of Adolf Erik nordenskiöld in 1883, and Robert peary in 1886.
13 Through the spring and early summer viking roamed between Greenland and Spitsbergen in search of seal herds. Nansen became an expert marksman, and on one day proudly recorded that his team had shot 200 seal. In July, viking became trapped in the ice close to an unexplored section of the Greenland coast; Nansen longed to go ashore, but this was impossible. 12 However, he began to develop the idea that the Greenland icecap might be explored, or even crossed. 9 On 17 July the ship broke free from the ice, and early in August was back in Norwegian waters. 12 Nansen did not resume formal studies at the university. Instead, on Collett's recommendation, he accepted a post as curator in the zoological department of the bergen Museum.
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Life was disrupted when, in the summer of 1877, Adelaide nansen died suddenly. Distressed, baldur Nansen app sold the Store Frøen property and moved with his two sons to Christiania. 8 Nansen's sporting prowess continued to develop;at 18 he broke the world one-mile (1.6 km) skating record, and in the following year won the national cross-country skiing championship, a feat he would repeat on 11 subsequent occasions. 9 Student and adventurer edit nansen as a student in Christiania (1880, age 19) In 1880 Nansen passed his university entrance examination, the examen artium. He decided to study zoology, claiming later that he chose the subject because he thought it offered the chance of a life in the open air. He began his studies quit at the royal Frederick University in Christiania early in 1881. 10 Early in 1882 Nansen took ".the first fatal step that led me astray from the quiet life of science." 11 Professor Robert Collett of the university's zoology department proposed that Nansen take a sea voyage, to study Arctic zoology at first hand.
Nansen was enthusiastic, and made arrangements through a recent acquaintance, captain Axel Krefting, commander of the sealer viking. 11 The voyage began on extended over the following five months. In the weeks before sealing started, nansen was able to concentrate on scientific studies. 12 From water samples he showed that, contrary to previous assumption, sea ice forms on the surface of the water rather than below. His readings also demonstrated that the gulf Stream flows beneath a cold layer of surface water.
In the short summers the main activities were swimming and fishing, while in the autumn the chief pastime was hunting for game in the forests. The long winter months were devoted mainly to skiing, which Nansen began to practice at the age of two, on improvised skis. 5 At the age of 10 he defied his parents and attempted the ski jump at the nearby huseby installation. This exploit had near-disastrous consequences, as on landing the skis dug deep into the snow, pitching the boy forward: "I, head first, described a fine arc in the air. When I came down again I bored into the snow up to my waist. The boys thought I had broken my neck, but as soon as they saw there was life.
A shout of mocking laughter went." 4 Nansen's enthusiasm for skiing was undiminished, though as he records, his efforts were overshadowed by those of the skiers from the mountainous region of Telemark, where a new style of skiing was being developed. "I saw this was the only way wrote nansen later. 6 At school, nansen worked adequately without showing any particular aptitude. 5 Studies took second place to sports, or to expeditions into the forests where he would live "like robinson Crusoe " for weeks at a time. 7 Through such experiences Nansen developed a marked degree of self-reliance. He became an accomplished skier and a highly proficient skater.
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His son, hans leierdahl Nansen (17641821 was a magistrate first in the Trondheim district, later in Jæren. After Norway's separation from Denmark in 1814, he entered national political life as the representative for Stavanger in the first Storting, and became a strong advocate of union with Sweden. After suffering a paralytic stroke in 1821 Hans leierdahl Nansen died, leaving a four-year-old son, baldur Fridtjof Nansen, the explorer's father. 2 Baldur was a lawyer without ambitions for public life, who became reporter to the supreme court of Norway. He married twice, the second time to Adelaide johanne Thekla Isidore bølling Wedel-Jarlsberg from Bærum, a niece of Herman Wedel-Jarlsberg who had helped frame the norwegian constitution of 1814 and was later the Swedish king's Norwegian Viceroy. 3 Baldur and Adelaide settled at paper Store Frøen, an estate at aker, a few kilometres north of Norway's capital city, christiania (since renamed Oslo). The couple had three children; the first died in infancy, the second, born, was Fridtjof Nansen. 4 5 Store Frøen's rural surroundings shaped the nature of Nansen's childhood.
He worked on behalf of refugees until his sudden death in 1930, after which the league established the. Nansen International Office for Refugees to ensure that his work continued. This office received the nobel peace Prize in 1938. His name is commemorated in numerous geographical features, particularly in the polar regions. Contents Family background and childhood edit nansen in 1865 (age 4) The nansen family originated in Denmark. Hans Nansen (15981667 a trader, was an early explorer of the White sea region of the Arctic Ocean. In later life he settled in Copenhagen, becoming shoes the city's borgmester in 1654. Later generations of the family lived in Copenhagen until the mid-18th century, when Ancher Antoni nansen moved to norway (then in a union with Denmark ).
served as the norwegian representative in London, where he helped negotiate the Integrity Treaty that guaranteed Norway's independent status. In the final decade of his life, nansen devoted himself primarily to the. League of Nations, following his appointment in 1921 as the league's High Commissioner for Refugees. In 1922 he was awarded the. Nobel peace Prize for his work on behalf of the displaced victims of the. First World War and related conflicts. Among the initiatives he introduced was the ". Nansen passport " for stateless persons, a certificate that used to be recognised by more than 50 countries.
Although he retired from exploration after his return to norway, his techniques of polar travel and his innovations in equipment and clothing influenced a generation of subsequent. Arctic and, antarctic expeditions. Nansen studied zoology at the, royal Frederick University in Christiania (renamed. Oslo in 1925 and later worked as a curator at the. University museum of Bergen where his research on the central nervous system of lower marine creatures earned him a doctorate and helped establish neuron doctrine. Later, famed neuroscientist, santiago ramón y cajal would win the 1906 Nobel Prize in Medicine for his research on the same subject, though "technical priority" for the theory is given to nansen. 1, after 1896 his main scientific interest switched to oceanography ; in the course of his research he made many scientific cruises, mainly in the north Atlantic, and contributed to the development of modern oceanographic equipment.
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For other uses, see. Fridtjof Nansen (Norwegian: fɾitjɔf nɑnsn ; ) was. Norwegian explorer, scientist, diplomat, business humanitarian, and, nobel peace Prize laureate. In his youth he was a champion skier and ice skater. He led the team that made the first crossing of the. Greenland interior in 1888, traversing the island on cross-country skis. He won international fame after reaching a record northern latitude of 8614 during his. North Pole expedition of 189396.