For example: Now eat your dinner. You go and stand over there! Don't ever say that word again. Sentences of this type are used to give an instruction or order. When they are used to make requests, the word please (or other linguistic device) is often added for politeness : Please pass the salt. First person imperatives ( cohortatives ) can be formed with let us (usually contracted to let's as in "Let's go". Third person imperatives ( jussives ) are sometimes formed similarly, with let, as in "Let him be released". More detail can be found in the Imperative mood article.
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Moods edit Indicative edit Indicative mood, in English, refers to finite verb forms that are not marked as subjunctive and are not imperatives or conditionals. They are the verbs typically found in the main clauses of declarative sentences and questions formed from them, as well as in most dependent clauses (except for those that use the subjunctive). The information that a form is indicative is often omitted when referring to it: the simple present indicative is usually referred to as just the simple present, etc. (unless some contrast of moods, such as between indicative and subjunctive, is pertinent to the topic). Subjunctive edit certain types of clause, mostly dependent clauses, use a verb form identified with the subjunctive mood. The present subjunctive takes a form identical to the bare infinitive, as in It is necessary that he be restrained. There is also a past subjunctive, distinct from the indicative only in the possible use of were in place of was in certain situations: If I life were you. For details of the formation and usage of subjunctive forms in English, see english subjunctive. Imperative edit An independent clause in the imperative mood uses the base form of the verb, usually with no subject (although the subject you can be added for emphasis). Negation uses do -support (i.e. Do not or don't ).
Note that while all of the constructions referred to here are commonly referred to as perfect (based on their grammatical form some of them, particularly nonpresent and nonfinite instances, might not be considered truly expressive of the perfect aspect. 2 This applies particularly when the perfect infinitive is used together with modal verbs : for example, he could not have been a genius might be considered (based on its meaning) to be a past tense of he cannot/could not be a genius ;. 4 For the meanings of such constructions with the various modals, see english modal verbs. Perfect progressive edit The perfect and progressive (continuous) aspects can be combined, usually in referring to the completed portion of a continuing action or temporary revelation state: I have been working for eight hours. Here a form of the verb have (denoting the perfect) is used together with been (the past participle of be, denoting the progressive) and the present participle of the main verb. In the case of the stative verbs, which do not use progressive aspect (see the above section on the progressive the plain perfect form is normally used in place of the perfect progressive: i've been here for half an hour (not * i've been being. For uses of specific perfect progressive (perfect continuous) constructions, see the sections below on the present perfect progressive, past perfect progressive, future perfect progressive and conditional perfect progressive. For perfect progressive infinitives, participles and gerunds, see Perfect and progressive nonfinite constructions.
Perfect forms can also be used to refer to states or habitual actions, even if not complete, if the focus is on the time period before the point of reference ( we had lived there for five years ). If such a circumstance is temporary, the perfect is often combined with progressive aspect (see the following section). The implications of the present perfect (that something occurred prior to the present moment) are similar to those of the simple past, although the two forms are generally not used interchangeably the simple past is used when the time frame of reference is in the. For details, see the relevant sections below. For all uses of specific perfect constructions, see the sections below on the present perfect, past perfect, future perfect and conditional perfect. By using nonfinite forms of the auxiliary have, perfect aspect can also be marked on infinitives (as in should have left and expect to have finished working and on participles and gerunds pdf (as in having seen the doctor ). For the usage of such forms, see the section below on perfect and progressive nonfinite constructions.
Verbs of mental state, sense perception and similar ( know, believe, want, think, see, hear, need, etc.) are generally used without progressive aspect, although some of them can be used in the progressive to imply an ongoing, often temporary situation ( i am feeling lonely. See also can see below. Verbs denoting positional state normally do use the progressive if the state is temporary: he is standing in the corner. (Compare permanent state: London stands on the banks of the Thames. ) For specific uses of progressive (continuous) constructions, see the sections below on present progressive, past progressive, future progressive and conditional progressive. For progressive infinitives, see Perfect and progressive nonfinite constructions. For the combination of progressive aspect with the perfect ( he has been reading ) see perfect progressive. Perfect edit The perfect aspect is used to denote the circumstance of an action's being complete at a certain time. It is expressed using a form of the auxiliary verb have (appropriately conjugated for tense etc.) together with the past participle of the main verb: She has eaten it ; we had left ; When will you have finished?
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For uses of specific simple constructions, see the sections below on simple present, simple past, simple future and simple conditional. Progressive edit The progressive or continuous aspect is used to denote red a temporary action or state that began at a previous time and continues into the present time (or other time of reference). It is expressed using a form of the auxiliary verb to be (conjugated appropriately for tense etc.) together with the present participle ( essay -ing form) of the main verb: i am reading ; Were you shouting? ; he will be sitting over there. Certain stative verbs make limited use of progressive aspect. Their nonprogressive forms ( simple or nonprogressive perfect constructions) are used in many situations even when expressing a temporary state. The main types are described below.
The copular verb to be does not normally use progressive forms ( i am happy, not * i am being happy ). However its progressive aspect is used in appropriate situations when the verb expresses the passive voice ( we are being followed and when it has the meaning of "behave" or "act as" ( you are being very naughty ; he's being a pest ). The verb to have does not use progressive forms when it expresses possession, broadly understood ( I have a brother, not * I'm having a brother but it does use them in its active meanings ( I'm having a party ; She's having a baby. See also have got below. Other verbs expressing a state of possession or similar, such as possess, own, belong and owe, also do not normally use progressive forms.
For particular grammatical contexts where the present tense substitutes for the future, see conditional sentences and dependent clauses below. For discussion and comparison of the various ways of making future reference in English, see going-to future. For specific uses of future constructions formed with will/shall, see the sections below on simple future, future progressive, future perfect and future perfect progressive. Future-in-the-past edit a "future-in-the-past" tense (or form) is sometimes referred. 1 This takes essentially the same form as the conditional, that is, it is made using the auxiliary would (or sometimes should in the first person; see shall and will ). This form has a future-in-the-past meaning in sentences such as She knew that she would win the game.
Here the sentence as a whole refers to some particular past time, but would win refers to a time in the future relative to that past time. See future tense Expressions of relative tense involving the future. For specific uses, see the sections below referring to the conditional ( Simple conditional Notes, Conditional progressive, conditional perfect Notes, Conditional perfect progressive ). Aspects edit simple edit "Simple" forms of verbs are those appearing in constructions not marked for either progressive or perfect aspect ( I go, i don't go, i went, i will go, etc., but not I'm going or I have gone ). Simple constructions normally denote a single action (perfective aspect as in Brutus killed caesar, a repeated action (habitual aspect as in I go to school, or a relatively permanent state, as in we live in Dallas. They may also denote a temporary state (imperfective aspect in the case of stative verbs that do not use progressive forms (see below).
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Past edit past tense forms express circumstances existing at some time in the past, although they also have certain uses in referring to hypothetical situations (as in some conditional sentences, dependent clauses and expressions of wish ). They are formed using the finite verb in its preterite (simple past) form. Certain uses of the past tense may be referred to as subjunctives ; however the only distinction in verb conjugation between the past indicative and past subjunctive is the possible use of were in the subjunctive in place of was. For details see english subjunctive. For specific uses of past tense constructions, see the sections below on simple past, past progressive, past perfect and past perfect progressive. Note also that diary in certain contexts past events are reported using the present perfect (or even other present tense forms see above). Future edit English is sometimes described as having a future tense, although since future time is not specifically expressed by verb inflection, some grammarians identify only two tenses (present or present-future, and past). The English "future" usually refers to a periphrastic form involving best the auxiliary verb will (or sometimes shall when used with a first-person subject; see shall and will ). There also exist other ways of referring to future circumstances, including the going to construction, and the use of present tense forms (see above).
However the same forms are quite often also used to refer to future circumstances, as in "He's coming tomorrow" (hence this tense is sometimes referred to as present-future or nonpast ). For certain grammatical contexts where the present tense is the standard way to refer to the future, see conditional sentences and dependent clauses below. It is also possible for the present tense to be used when referring to no particular real time (as when telling a story or when recounting past events (the historical present, particularly common in headline language ). The present perfect intrinsically refers to past events, although it can be considered to denote primarily the resulting present situation rather than the events themselves. The present tense has two moods, indicative and subjunctive; when no mood is specified, it is often the indicative that is meant. In a present indicative construction, the finite verb appears in its base form, or in its -s form if its subject is third-person singular. (The verb be has the forms am, is, are, while the modal verbs the do not add -s for third-person singular.) For the present subjunctive, see english subjunctive. (The present subjunctive has no particular relationship with present time, and is sometimes simply called the subjunctive, without specifying the tense.) For specific uses of present tense constructions, see the sections below on simple present, present progressive, present perfect and present perfect progressive.
compound verbs ; more technically they may be called verb catenae, since they are not generally strict grammatical constituents of the clause. As the last example shows, the words making up these combinations do not always remain consecutive. For details of the formation of such constructions, see english clause syntax. The uses of the various types of combination are described in the detailed sections of the present article. (For another type of combination involving verbs items such as go on, slip away and break off see phrasal verb.) Tenses, aspects and moods edit As in many other languages, the means English uses for expressing the three categories of tense (time reference aspect and. In contrast to languages like latin, though, English has only limited means for expressing these categories through verb conjugation, and tends mostly to express them periphrastically, using the verb combinations mentioned in the previous section. The tenses, aspects and moods that may be identified in English are described below (although the terminology used differs significantly between authors). Note that in common usage, particularly in English language teaching, particular tenseaspectmood combinations such as "present progressive" and "conditional perfect" are often referred to simply as "tenses". Tenses edit Present edit Present tense is used, in principle, to refer to circumstances that exist at the present time (or over a period that includes the present time).
Contents, inflected forms of verbs edit, a typical English verb may have five different inflected forms: The base form or plain form ( go, write, climb which has several uses—as dates an infinitive, imperative, present subjunctive, and present indicative except in the third-person singular The -s. while the modal verbs have a more limited number of forms. Some forms of be and of certain other auxiliary verbs also have contracted forms ( 's, 're, 've, etc.). For full details of how these inflected forms of verbs are produced, see english verbs. Verbs in combination edit In English, verbs frequently appear in combinations containing one or more auxiliary verbs and a nonfinite form (infinitive or participle) of a main (lexical) verb. For example: The dog was barking very loudly. My hat has been cleaned. Jane does not really like.
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This article describes the uses of various verb forms in modern standard, english language. This includes: Finite verb forms such as go, goes and went, nonfinite forms such as (to) go, going and gone, combinations ( catenae ) of such forms with auxiliary verbs, such as was going and would have gone. The uses considered include expression of tense (time reference aspect, mood and modality, in various configurations. For details of how inflected forms of verbs are produced in English, see. For the grammatical structure of clauses, including word order, see. For certain other particular topics, see the articles listed in the adjacent box. For non-standard dialect forms and antique forms, see individual dialect articles and the article, thou.