They seek not simply direction but to grapple with the underlying questions of whether, why, and what. A broad-based education expands—and fuels the self-guided growth of—ones horizons. It develops the intellect and inculcates the spirit of inquiry for a lifelong pursuit of learning. The measure of education, far from being the level or even the sum of formal schooling, rests more in the degree of open-mindedness and active mental engagement it engenders. Keeping the Strategic Flame ( local copy ), by builder, in joint Force quarterly, winter 1996-97 The current demand by the military for welldefined objectives is eloquent evidence of how far our thinking has drifted toward the tactical domain. The insistence on operationally planning based on enemy capabilities, while tactically prudent, is the antithesis of strategic thinking, which should concentrate on enemy vulnerabilities. Although defeating enemy forces may sometimes be necessary to achieve our objectives, it is not always the nations or the militarys best option. Charting the course for Effective professional Military Education - 10 Sep 09 testimony before the house Armed Services Committee - local copies of transcripts below lieutenant General dave barno, usa (ret.) - director, near East south Asia center for Strategic Studies given the notable shortcomings.
Free, thinking, through the, past, essay
We place creativity at the top because crafting strategies, like war itself, is an art. We posit that educating an officer to be a strategist is for naught if the first four traits are not present. We must demand more of our officers—not in terms of time or energy (most give more than their fair share whether they have it or not but in terms of how they think. Let us be clear on one point: deductive thinking is required in campaign planning and in airpower theory, especially when it comes to establishing quantifiable metrics and measuring against them. Pressed up against the realities of war, deductive thinkers do a great job killing the enemy, but it is inductive thinkers who master how to discourage enemy forces from wanting to continue to fight. And it is inductive thinkers who are best able to determine how to achieve victory on a variety of battlefields against innumerable conflicts and challenges. The metrics to measure each are very different. One is an empirical count while the other cannot be measured. Growing Strategic leaders for Future conflict, by salmoni et al, parameters, spring 2010 Schools for Strategy: teaching Strategy for 21st Century conflict ( local copy ), by Gray, ssi, nov 2009 Research, Writing, and the mind of the Strategist ( local copy ), by foster. Thus it is imperative to develop, nurture, and engage strategic thinkers at all levels—critical, creative, broadgauged visionaries with the intellect to dissect the status quo, grasp the big picture, discern important relationships among events, generate imaginative possibilities ethos for action, and operate easily in the conceptual. Almost by definition, strategic thinkers are broadly educated, not narrowly trained.
Experience is important, but for senior leadership we should seek out those who can adapt to the situation no matter what. Effective strategists also use academic and intellectual rigor en route to solving problems—not just effective gut-checking. We mentioned earlier the trend toward relying on experience rather than critical thinking and inductive reasoning. Inductive reasoning is not hard merely for military officers, but for almost everyone. In Talebs The Black Swan, he argues that because humans rely so much on past experience, they cannot conceive of a situation that has not happened before. Inductive reasoning is only one attribute of successful strategists. They must also exhibit: creativity curiosity confidence high intelligence without subject fixation ability to collate and make sense out of massive amounts of data great and diverse intellect thorough knowledge of the means intuitive understanding of the ends.
Instead, the service teaches people, processes, and products that make up the air Operations Center at its command and staff college. There is no career path for strategists or strategic thinkers, and indeed there appears to be a trend away from intellectualism. Rather than disdaining intellectualism, senior leaders should be encouraged to read recent scholarship on strategic decisionmaking and ask themselves if they can learn something there. In addition to the long list of histories of command and leadership, air Force senior leaders should have to read Scott Pages The difference, malcolm Gladwells Blink and Outliers, james Surowieckis The wisdom yardage of Crowds, and most importantly, alec Fishers The logic of real Arguments. The balance between Gladwell and Surowiecki should be lessons that all senior officers learn en route to becoming strategists. Giovanni gavetti and Jan rivkin, in How Strategists really Think, tell us that one of the greatest mistakes leaders make is applying the wrong experiential analogies to the situation at hand. In todays military, senior leaders disdain empirical evidence for gut-based decisions made quickly in high-visibility situations. As Watts mentions, too many of our roles leaders go on experience and apply lessons from the past to the problem at hand. The current problem, however, is rarely like any they previously faced; thus, the lessons they bring forward are not relevant.
It is just a list of things. Such lists usually grow out of planning meetings in which a wide variety of stakeholders suggest things they would like to see accomplished. Rather than focus on a few important items, the group sweeps the whole days collection into the strategic plan. Then, in recognition that it is a dogs dinner, the label long term is added, implying that none of these things need be done today. Bad strategy has many roots, but Ill focus on two here: the inability to choose and template-style planning—filling in the blanks with vision, mission, values, strategies. Developing Air Force Strategists: Change culture, reverse careerism ( local copy ), by bethel et al, joint Force quarterly, 3rd quarter 2010 How we got to the point where our best and brightest are able to offer only tired and uncreative strategies is not. We must develop, nurture, and promote strategic thinkers. We define strategic thinkers as those officers who understand the inherent linkages between the abstract and concrete, between thinking and doing, and who eschew old checklists for new ideas and apply those ideas to potential future situations. The air Force should seek out those officers who have a balanced brain—those who can not only intuit well and rapidly, but who also understand when it may be necessary to look for theories that can be generalized.
Petersons 10 Step guide to Clearer
Thinking - you can learn to do better What you think you already do well ( local copy ), by hobbs, usmc, research paper for icaf, 1992 Strategic Thinking Not everything that can be counted counts, and not everything that counts can be counted. — albert Einstein Nine-tenths of tactics are certain and taught in the proposal books; but, the irrational tenth is like the kingfisher flashing across the pool. This is the test of generals. Success can only be ensured by instinct sharpened by thought. At the crisis, it is as natural as a reflex.
Lawrence, in The Science of guerilla warfare The nation that makes a great distinction between its scholars and its warriors will have its thinking done by cowards and its fighting done by fools. — thucydides see also critical thinking see also decision making see also strategic art see also military theory page see also strategic communication page at the cyberspace information Operations Study center see also dod and service leadership competency models at Strategic leadership Studies for competencies. Further complicating the situation will be the ubiquitous media whose presence will mean that all future conflicts will be acted out before an international audience. Krulak the perils of bad strategy, by rumelt, in the McKinsey quarterly, (2011, 1) Another sign of bad strategy is fuzzy strategic objectives. One form this problem can take is a scrambled mess of things to accomplish—a dogs dinner of goals. A long list of things to do, often mislabeled as strategies or objectives, is not a strategy.
In doing so, this essay will propose principles of critical and creative thinking applicable to the military profession to provide a common vocabulary that describes the type of thinking. To expand and improve critical and creative thinking, military professionals need a common vocabulary that accurately describes the very thinking we are to expand and improve. Critical Thinking and Intelligence Analysis ( local copy,.4 Mb low res ), by moore, national Defense Intelligence college (ndic) occasional paper. 14, march 2007 ( local copy,.1 Mb high res ) - includes generic and intel-specific discussion, as well as an appendix which is the nsa's Critical Thinking and Structured Analysis Class Syllabus Psychology of Intelligence Analysis ( local copy ), by heuer, 1999, for. 8.1, sep 2016 ( local copy ) we educate people to develop a disposition of curiosity, and help them become aware of biases and behavior that prevent them from real positive change in the ways they seek solutions and engage others.
Ufmcs the Applied Critical Thinking Handbook (formerly the red team Handbook. 7.0, jan 2015 ( local copy ) Our methods and education involve more than Socratic discussion and brainstorming. We believe that good decision processes are essential to good outcomes. To that end, our curriculum is rich in divergent processes, red teaming tools, and liberating structures, all aimed at decision support. Ufmcs red team Handbook, apr 2012 ( local copy ) Each section can almost stand alone, and Section xi structured Analytic Techniques has a large variety of tools/techniques for overcoming mind-sets including 9 Step Cultural Methodology and String of pearls tool and Analysis of Competing. Action learning guide ( local copy ), from Presidential Management Fellows (pmf posted by opm - check especially the appendices for items/tools such as inference ladder, four frames, conflict management, stakeholder mapping, force field analysis, and more mind tools, a good site for quick pass. Peirces decomposition of thinking into abduction, deduction, and induction is among the important points in the lectures. How we think, 1910, by john Dewey "Knowing" - self, enemy, situation - the Art of War 2000 ( local copy ) - a quick, easy read from navy cio with topics such as types of cognitive capabilities, and knowing yourself as an agent.
4, essay - 1459 Words
He may as well concern himself with his shadow on the wall. Speak what you think now in hard words, and to-morrow speak what to-morrow thinks in hard words again, though it contradict every thing you said to-day. — 'ah, so you shall be sure to be misunderstood.' — is it so bad, then, to be misunderstood? Pythagoras was misunderstood, and Socrates, and Jesus, and Luther, and Copernicus, and Galileo, and Newton, and every pure and wise spirit that ever took flesh. To be great is to be misunderstood. — ralph Waldo Emerson, in his essay self-Reliance. General Research muir. Fairchild Research Information Center Fit to Think: Conceptual, Critical, and Creative thinking, briefing by Grant Hammond, usaf center for Strategy resumes and Technology (csat) How to do research, briefing by Grant Hammond, usaf center for Strategy and Technology (csat) overall/General Resources see also fast and slow.lined
— samuel Johnson, iron rusts from disuse, stagnant water loses its purity and in cold weather becomes frozen; so does inaction sap the vigors of the mind. — leonardo da vinci, thinking is the hardest work there is, which is the probable reason why so few engage. In the field of observation, chance favors the prepared mind. — louis Pasteur, we shall not cease from exploration, and the end of all our exploring will be to arrive where we started and know the place for the first time. Eliot, the other terror that scares us from self-trust is our consistency; a reverence for our past act or word, because the eyes of others have no other data for computing our orbit than book our past acts, and we are loath to disappoint them. A foolish consistency is the hobgoblin of little minds, adored by little statesmen and philosophers and divines. With consistency a great soul has simply nothing.
beautiful and of the morally good. Otherwise he with his specialized knowledge more closely resembles a well trained dog than a harmoniously developed person. He must learn to understand the motives of human beings, their illusions, and their sufferings in order to acquire a proper relationship to the individual fellow-men and to the communityoveremphasis on the competitive system and premature specialization on the ground of immediate usefulness kill the. It is also vital to a valuable education that independent critical thinking be developed in the young human being, a development that is greatly jeopardized by overburdening him with too much and with too varied subjects. Overburdening necessarily leads to superficiality. 66-67, integrity without knowledge is weak and useless, and knowledge without integrity is dangerous and dreadful. Knowledge is of two kinds. We know a subject ourselves, or we know where we can find information upon.
Do one thing every day that scares you. — eleanor roosevelt, my ability to keep cool in a crisis is based entirely on not knowing all the facts. — garrison keillor, the one common experience of all humanity is the challenge of problems. The intuitive mind is a sacred gift and the rational mind is a faithful servant. We have created a society that honors the servant and has forgotten the gift. — albert Einstein, the development of general ability for independent thinking and judgment should always be placed foremost, not the acquisition of special knowledge. It a person masters the fundamentals of his subject and has learned to think and work independently, he will surely find plan his way and besides will better be able to adapt himself to progress and changes than the person whose training principally consists in the. — albert Einstein, in, ideas and Opinions,. It is not enough to teach a man a speciality.
4, essay - 1450 Words bartleby
Quot;s, what information consumes is rather obvious: it legs consumes the attention of its recipients. Hence a wealth of information creates a poverty of attention, and a need to allocate that attention efficiently among the overabundance of information sources that might consume. — herbert Simon, the nation that makes a great distinction between its scholars and its warriors will have its thinking done by cowards and its fighting done by fools. — thucydides, fantasy, abandoned by reason, produces impossible monsters; united with it, she is the mother of the arts and the origin of marvels. When a task cannot be partitioned because of sequential constraints, the application of more effort has no effect on the schedule. The bearing of a child takes nine months, no matter how many women are assigned. Brooks,., The mythical Man-Month, some ideas are so stupid that only intellectuals could believe them. — george Orwell, intelligence is like a four-wheel drive. It allows you to get stuck in more remote places.