Religious rituals facilitate this development. Erikson's theory has not benefited from systematic empirical study, but it remains an influential and well-regarded theory in the psychological study of religion. Erich Fromm edit The American scholar Erich Fromm (19001980) modified the Freudian theory and produced a more complex account of the functions of religion. In his book psychoanalysis and Religion he responded to Freud's theories by explaining that part of the modification is viewing the oedipus complex as based not so much on sexuality as on a "much more profound desire namely, the childish desire to remain attached. The right religion, in Fromm's estimation, can, in principle, foster an individual's highest potentialities, but religion in practice tends to relapse into being neurotic. 12 According to Fromm, humans have a need for a stable frame of reference.
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In contrast, immature religion is self-serving and generally represents the negative stereotypes that people have about religion. More recently, this distinction has been encapsulated in the terms "intrinsic religion referring to a genuine, heartfelt devout faith, and "extrinsic religion referring to a more utilitarian use of religion as a means to an end, such as church attendance to gain social status. These dimensions of religion were measured on the religious Orientation Scale of Allport and Ross (1967). A third form of religious orientation has been described by daniel Batson. This refers to treatment of religion as an open-ended search (Batson, Schoenrade ventis, 1993). More specifically, it has been seen by batson as comprising a willingness to view religious doubts in a positive manner, acceptance that religious orientation can change and existential complexity, the belief that one's religious beliefs should be shaped from personal crises that one has experienced. Batson refers to extrinsic, intrinsic and quest respectively as religion-as-means, religion-as-end and religion-as-quest, and measures these constructs on the religious Life Inventory (Batson, Schoenrade ventis, 1993). Erikson edit Erik erikson (19021994) is best known for his theory of psychological development, which has its roots in the psychoanalytic importance of identity in personality. His biographies of Gandhi and Martin Luther reveal Erikson's with positive view of religion. He considered religions to be important influences in successful personality development because they are the primary way that cultures promote the virtues associated with each stage of life.
An important thing for Adler is that God (or the idea of God) motivates people to act, and that those actions do have real consequences for ourselves and for others. Our view of God is important because it embodies our goals and directs our social interactions. Compared to science, another social movement, religion is more efficient because it motivates people more effectively. According to Adler, only when science begins to capture the same religious fervour, and promotes the welfare of all segments of society, will the two be more equal in peoples' eyes. Gordon Allport edit In his classic book the Individual and His Religion (1950 gordon Allport (18971967) illustrates how people may use religion in different ways. 11 he makes a distinction between Mature business religion and Immature religion. Mature religious sentiment is how Allport characterized the person whose approach to religion is dynamic, open-minded, and able to maintain links between inconsistencies.
If we, too, achieve perfection, we become one with God. By identifying with God in this way, we compensate for our imperfections and feelings of inferiority. Our ideas about God are important indicators of how we view the world. According to Adler, these ideas have changed over time, as our vision of the world and our place in it has changed. Consider this example that Adler offers: the traditional belief that people were placed deliberately on earth parts as God's ultimate creation is being replaced with the idea that people have evolved by natural selection. This coincides with a view of God not as a real being, but as an abstract representation of nature's forces. In this way our view of God has changed from one that was concrete and specific to one that is more general. From Adler's vantage point, this is a relatively ineffective perception of God because it is so general that it fails to convey a strong sense of direction and purpose.
The irruption of these images from the unconscious into the realm of consciousness he viewed as the basis of religious experience and often of artistic creativity. Some of Jung's writings have been devoted to elucidating some of the archetypal symbols, and include his work in comparative mythology. Alfred Adler edit austrian psychiatrist Alfred Adler (18701937 who parted ways with Freud, emphasised the role of goals and motivation in his Individual Psychology. One of Adler's most famous ideas is that we try to compensate for inferiorities that we perceive in ourselves. A lack of power often lies at the root of feelings of inferiority. One way that religion enters into this picture is through our beliefs in God, which are characteristic of our tendency to strive for perfection and superiority. For example, in many religions God is considered to be perfect and omnipotent, and commands people likewise to be perfect.
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Sigmund Freud edit sigmund Freud (18561939) gave explanations of the genesis of religion in his various writings. In Totem and Taboo, he applied the idea of the oedipus complex tom (involving unresolved sexual feelings of, for example, a son toward his mother and hostility toward his father) and postulated its emergence in the primordial stage of human development. In Moses and Monotheism, freud reconstructed biblical history in accordance with his general theory. His ideas were also developed in The future of an Illusion. When Freud spoke of religion as an illusion, he maintained that it "is a fantasy structure from which a man must be set free if he is to grow to maturity." Freud views the idea of God as being a version of the father image.
Authoritarian religion, Freud believed, is dysfunctional and alienates man from himself. Carl Jung edit The Swiss psychoanalyst Carl Jung (18751961) adopted a very different book posture, one that was more sympathetic to religion and more concerned with a positive appreciation of religious symbolism. Jung considered the question of the metaphysical existence of God to be unanswerable by the psychologist and adopted a kind of agnosticism. 10 Jung postulated, in addition to the personal unconscious (roughly adopting Freud's concept the collective unconscious, which is the repository of human experience and which contains " archetypes " (i.e. Basic images that are universal in that they recur regardless of culture).
James included"tions from leo tolstoy and John Bunyan to illustrate the sick soul. William James' hypothesis of pragmatism stems from the efficacy of religion. If an individual believes in and performs religious activities, and those actions happen to work, then that practice appears the proper choice for the individual. However, if the processes of religion have little efficacy, then there is no rationality for continuing the practice. Other early theorists edit. Hegel edit georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (17701831) described all systems of religion, philosophy, and social science as expressions of the basic urge of consciousness to learn about itself and its surroundings, and record its findings and hypotheses.
Thus, religion is only a form of that search for knowledge, within which humans record various experiences and reflections. Others, compiling and categorizing these writings in various ways, form the consolidated worldview as articulated by that religion, philosophy, social science, etc. His work The Phenomenology of Spirit was a study of how various types of writing and thinking draw from and re-combine with the individual and group experiences of various places and times, influencing the current forms of knowledge and worldviews that are operative. This activity is the functioning of an incomplete group mind, where each individual is accessing the recorded wisdom of others. His works often include detailed descriptions of the psychological motivations involved in thought and behavior,. G., the struggle of a community or nation to know itself and thus correctly govern itself. In Hegel's system, religion is one of the major repositories of wisdom to be used in these struggles, representing a huge body of recollections from humanity's past in various stages of its development.
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Institutional religion refers to the religious group or organization, and plays an important part in a society's culture. Personal religion, in which the individual has mystical experience, can be experienced regardless of the culture. James was most interested in understanding personal religious experience. In studying personal religious experiences, james made a distinction between healthy-minded and sick-souled professional religiousness. Individuals predisposed to healthy-mindedness tend to ignore the evil in the world revelation and focus on the positive and the good. James used examples of Walt Whitman and the " mind-cure " religious movement to illustrate healthy-mindedness in The varieties of Religious Experience. In contrast, individuals predisposed to having a sick-souled religion are unable to ignore evil and suffering, and need a unifying experience, religious or otherwise, to reconcile good and evil.
little regard for their history in their Western context, and with the apparent realist assumption that underlying them are fixed qualities identifiable by means of empirical procedures. 7, schnitker and Emmons theorized that the understanding of religion as a search for meaning makes implications in the three psychological areas of motivation, cognition and social relationships. The cognitive aspects relate to god and a sense of purpose, the motivational ones to the need to control, and the religious search for meaning is also weaved into social communities. 8, history edit, william James edit, american psychologist and philosopher William James (18421910) is regarded by most psychologists of religion as the founder of the field. 9 he served as president of the American Psychological Association, and wrote one of the first psychology textbooks. In the psychology of religion, james' influence endures. His Varieties of Religious Experience is considered to be the classic work in the field, and references to james' ideas are common at professional conferences. James distinguished between institutional religion and personal religion.
Historians of religion have long underscored the shredder problematic character of this term, noting that its usage over the centuries has changed in significant ways, generally in the direction of reification. 2, the early psychologists of religion were fully aware of these difficulties, typically acknowledging that the definitions they were choosing to use were to some degree arbitrary. 3, with the rise of positivistic trends in psychology over the course of the 20th century, especially the demand that all phenomena be operationalized by quantitative procedures, psychologists of religion developed a multitude of scales, most of them developed for use with Protestant Christians. Factor analysis was also brought into play by both psychologists and sociologists of religion, in an effort to establish a fixed core of dimensions and a corresponding set of scales. The justification and adequacy of these efforts, especially in the light of constructivist and other postmodern viewpoints, remains a matter of debate. In the last several decades, especially among clinical psychologists, a preference for the terms "spirituality" and "spiritual" has emerged, along with efforts to distinguish them from "religion" and "religious." Especially in the. United States, "religion" has for many become associated with sectarian institutions and their obligatory creeds and rituals, thus giving the word a negative cast; "spirituality in contrast, is positively constructed as deeply individual and subjective, as a universal capacity to apprehend and accord one's life.
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Strictly speaking, psychology of religion consists of the application of psychological methods and interpretive frameworks to the diverse contents of the religious assignment traditions as well as to both religious and irreligious individuals. The extraordinary range of methods and frameworks can be helpfully summed up in terms of the classic distinction between the natural-scientific and human-scientific approaches. The first cluster proceeds by means of objective, quantitative, and preferably experimental procedures for testing hypotheses regarding the causal connections among the objects of one's study. In contrast, the human-scientific approach accesses the human world of experience by means of qualitative, phenomenological, and interpretive methods, with the goal of discerning meaningful rather than causal connections among the phenomena one seeks to understand. Psychologists of religion pursue three major projects: (1) systematic description, especially of religious contents, attitudes, experiences, and expressions; (2) explanation of the origins of religion, both in the history of the human race and in individual lives, taking into account a diversity of influences; and. The psychology of religion first arose as a self-conscious discipline in the late 19th century, but all three of these tasks have a history going back many centuries before that. 1, contents, overview edit, the challenge for the psychology of religion is essentially threefold: (1) to provide a thoroughgoing description of the objects of investigation, whether they be shared religious content (e.g., a tradition's ritual observances) or individual experiences, attitudes, or conduct; (2) to account. 1, these fruits may be both positive and negative. The first, descriptive task naturally requires a clarification of one's terms—above all, the word religion.