Since then, phonological changes have split it into two dialects: Eastern and Western Armenian. A typeface created by Khajag that improves on the legibility of current typefaces used in school textbooks. Schools nowadays teach only the eastern dialect as the written form because it is closer to the historical Old Armenian form, even though the western dialect is more widely spoken. The following chart shows the alphabet, with its Eastern (EA) and Western (WA) phonetic values: Punctuation in Armenian is quite interesting, because it is completely different than what we are used to: The Erkatagir script is monumental in style. The majuscule letters are large, erect, with gracefully rounded lines that connect (or spring from) the vertical elements of the letters. All letters are written on a base line between two imaginary parallel lines, with ascending and descending elements only slightly extending beyond. Round Erkatagir is characterized by a contrast of thick vertical forms and razor-thin connecting curved strokes. Text and image from 15levels The bolorgir, or minuscule, ancestor of modern Armenian type fonts, dominated scribal hands from the 13th to 16th centuries and continued well through the 19th.
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A b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z ( ä ö ü ß) to complicate things further, there are languages in which certain extensions are regarded. For example, in Spanish, the character ñ is considered a distinct letter and is sorted between n and o in the dictionary; but the accented vowels á, é, í, ó, ú are not distinct from the unaccented vowels a, e, i, o, u, respectively. A b c d e f g h i j k l m n ñ o p q r s t u v w x y z ( á é í ó ú ü ) Cyrillic Alphabet The cyrillic alphabet was developed by the Slavs. It is based on the system of Greek capital letters, augmented by ligatures and consonants from the older Glagolitic alphabet to account for sounds not found in the Greek. The russian resume Cyrillic alphabet. The early cyrillic alphabet came to dominate over Glagolitic in the 12th century. Since its creation, it has adapted to changes in the spoken language and developed regional variations to suit the features of national languages. Variations of the cyrillic alphabet are used nowadays for languages throughout Eastern Europe and Asia. It is interesting how different some of these letters can be depending on whether theyre written in regular or italic cursive: likewise, uppercase, small caps and lowercase can be quite different: Armenian The Armenian alphabet has been used for the Armenian language since the 5th. Until the 19th century, the Armenian language had only one written form: Old Armenian.
In Welsh, the digraph Ll is fused as ll to form a ligature. Digraphs and trigraphs are found in alphabets other than the latin one, and we can discern various patterns in their form:. Collating The question arises: how to sort all these modified letters? This is where collating comes in handy. Collation is the assemblage of written information into a standard order. One common type of collation is alphabetization, although collation is not limited to ordering letters of the alphabet. These additional letters can be regarded as distinct new letters and are assigned specific positions in the alphabet (such as the symbols å, business ä and ö in Swedish a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o.
Adding diacritics One way to extend the basic alphabet is by adding diacritics to existing letters, a practice followed by most Latin-based languages (English pretty much being the exception). The illustration below is from the very interesting article on diacritics from i love typography, showing various diacritics in use. Joining multiple letters to make ligatures Another way to extend the alphabet is by joining multiple letters to make ligatures. Fusing two or more ordinary letters creates a new glyph or character. Typical ligatures in the latin script. Clustering letters diagraphs and trigraphs are pairs and triplets of letters to which a special function has been assigned. They are not proper characters and do not correspond to the value you would get by combining two or three characters normally. Rather, they are pairs or triplets of letters with a special function.
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The art of gematria is knowing which solid to associate with which letter. This system is used to gain insight into related concepts and to find correspondence between words and concepts. According to most practitioners, there are several methods of calculating the handwriting numerical value of individual words and phrases. When converted to a number, a word or phrase can then be compared to another word or phrase, from which a similarity can be identified. Calligraphy over 150 laws govern how the hebrew alphabet can be written by a jewish scribe. Needless to say, we wont list them all here, but a few are below, including the standard for writing the letter tsadi, which consists of the letters Yud and Nun. For more information, this website is quite extensive.
European Alphabets In this part, well cover the five modern writing European alphabetic scripts: Latin, Greek, cyrillic, Armenian and georgian. Latin The basic modern Latin alphabet (containing 26 letters, possibly also used in combination with diacritics) is the best known of the latin alphabets. The writing system is not only the most used in Europe but is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world today. Consequently, we have many latin-derived alphabets. Some languages have fewer than 26 letters, such as the Italian alphabet, which has only 21 letters (thanks to the person who pointed this out in a comment). Most Latin-derived alphabets use the basic 26 letters, plus extensions. Diacritics are the most common way to extend the alphabet, but not the only way, as we will now see.
Hebrew can be written in three main scripts: Cursive hebrew. Used almost exclusively when handwriting in modern Hebrew, because it is faster to write than traditional Hebrew. A semi-cursive script used in books for editorial insertions or biblical commentary. (Named after Rashi, one of the great medieval Jewish scholars and biblical commentators.) Block. Used mostly in books. A stylized form of the Aramaic script.
Gematria in Hebrew, each letter is also used to denote numbers. One interesting thing about Hebrew is Gematria, the system of assigning numerical value to a word or phrase, in the belief that words or phrases with identical numerical values bear some relation to each other. The best-known example is the hebrew word Chai (meaning life which is composed of two letters that add up. For this reason, 18 is a spiritual number in Judaism, and many jews give gifts of money in multiples. The word Chai is composed of the two letters: Chet and Yod. There are 22 solid figures composed of regular polygons (5 Platonic solids, 4 Kepler-poinsot solids and 13 Archimedean solids). Because the hebrew alphabet has 22 letters, we can infer a correspondence between these two seemingly unrelated categories.
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These are written above, below or inside the letter, in ways that do not alter the spacing of the line. Text containing these markings is referred to as pointed text and contains three types of marks: The niqqud (points) are used most. They legs represent vowels or are used to distinguish between alternative pronunciations of several letters of the alphabet. The geresh (indicating initialisms) and the gershayim (indicating acronyms) are diacritics that affect pronunciation. They are also used to denote hebrew numerals but are not considered part literature of the niqqud. The cantillation are accents that show how Biblical passages should be chanted and that sometimes function as punctuation. Letters are in black, points in red and cantillation in blue. Fonts The hebrew letter (hei) in four fonts (from right to left modern Hebrew block, modern Hebrew handwriting, torah scroll writing, rashi script.
I could go on, but then this would not be the article you signed up for. So, well go back to our subject and start exploring the typographic beauty of languages. If youre interested in this classification of fascinating writing systems, then this wikipedia article is a great start. The hebrew alphabet is a descendant of the Aramaic alphabet, which is itself a descendant of the Phoenician alphabet. Like arabic, the hebrew alphabet is an abjad in its traditional form (i.e. An alphabet consisting only of consonants written from right to left. It has 22 letters, 5 of which have different forms at texting the end of a word (called sofit). The hebrew alphabet has only one case, so capitalization is not used, and it is often called the alefbet because of its first two letters. Diacritics, again like arabic, modern Hebrew orthography includes several types of diacritics as aids to pronunciation.
the name suggests, in a syllabic system, characters represent or approximate syllables (or more precisely moras which make up words. A symbol typically represents a consonant sound followed by a vowel sound, or a vowel alone (e.g. A featural writing system represents finer details than an alphabet. Each symbol represents not a whole phoneme but rather the phonetic features that make up the phoneme, such as voicing or place of articulation (e.g. Unluckily for us, most writing systems cannot be classified as purely one type. Indeed, many languages include several of these features. In English, for example, the clusters of phonemic letters are a complex match to their sounds.
Well cover the following: meet, smashing book 6 with everything from design systems and accessible single-page apps to list css custom Properties, Grid, service workers, performance, ar/vr and responsive art direction. New frontiers in front-end and ux with Marcy sutton, harry roberts, laura Elizabeth and many others. Writing Systems Of The world, before we get started, lets take a moment to understand where everything fits in: Click on the image to see it full-size. Figuring out how many languages are spoken in the world is hard, but estimates are at around 7000 languages and dialects, with hundreds of script for writing them down. Fortunately, the major writing systems fall into four broad categories: Alphabetic. As you probably know, an alphabet is a segmental writing system in which a standardized set of letters (graphemes) roughly represents phonemes. The word alphabet is derived from Alpha and Beta, the first two symbols of the Greek alphabet. Two types of alphabets are important in classifying writing systems: Adbjad, which contains symbols for consonants only, or vowels optionally written with diacritics (e.g. Adbugida, whose basic signs denote consonants with inherent vowels.
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The beauty of writing systems is that each has something unique from which to draw inspiration. Two weeks ago, in the first part of this article, we covered Arabic and East-Asian writing languages (Chinese, japanese, korean and vietnamese) and a few Indic scripts (devanagari, thai and Tibetan). We are now back for the second (and last) part, which is a bit different but just as interesting. You will see that some features of the languages presented here clearly correspond to our Latin-based system, while others are unfamiliar. The point of this second part is to complete our look at writing systems of the world and to think more generally about what they signify. Well cover Hebrew, modern European scripts, mongolian, Inuktitut and International Phonetic Alphabet. You may also want to check out the following Smashing Magazine articles: we are now back for the second (and last) part, which is a bit different but just as interesting.