This can lead to slight tremors (wiggly lines) and a constant line thickness and shading. (Real signatures usually have lighter and darker shading as the speed changes.) If the forger hesitates or pauses, you might see ink blots or pen lifts (small gaps in the signature). These are especially common at the start and end of the signature, or between letters. Try writing your own signature five times, and you'll probably see significant variation. If two signature are extremely similar, down to every curve and line, one of them could be a forgery. Community q a search Add New question While printing, the writer randomly uses capital letters in the body of the word. What does it mean? Wikihow Contributor This is most commonly seen with k, but can occur with any letter.
Episode 751: The evil That Men Write down With
There are dozens audit of curves, loops, connectors, and letter endings that distinguish a writing writer. Without taking a formal course, the best way to learn these is to inspect a single, long writing sample, then compare it to someone else's. Here are a couple examples to get you started: no writer writes like a machine. Look for different versions of a letter within the same sample to find out what kind of difference is unreliable. For example, if someone writes two f s with a fat loop and a thin loop, you can't rely on that shape for identification. Now look for a letter with similar characteristics every time it shows. For example, in cursive writing a person generally sticks to either a cursive capital i, or a simple vertical line stroke, or a line with crossbars. It's rare to see one writer use more than one of these. 8 Find signs of forgery. If you want another exercise, have your friends try to copy each other's signatures and present them in a pile along with the real thing. Here are a few telltale signs: 17 18 Forgers have to write slowly to copy the writing.
Take a ruler with millimeters and measure the space between letters or words. A significant difference in spacing could mean different writers. This is especially likely if one writing sample connects words with pen strokes, and the other separates them with gaps. 15 6 Check height relationships between letters. Does the writer book write the cursive l or k high above the other letters, or compressed down to the same height? This is a more consistent characteristic than the width of the loop or the slant of the letter. 16 7 Compare letter shapes.
A common mistake is to find a couple similarities between the samples, conclude they're the same writer, and stop looking. Challenge yourself to find differences first, then move on to similarities. 14 With that in mind, continue on to find out what to look for. 4 Compare baseline alignment. Look at the line on the paper, or put a ruler down underneath the writing if the paper is unlined. Different writers tend to write above or below the line. Some will stay level and even the whole way, while others are sloppier and move up and down. 5 measure the space between letters. This is a little finicky, but also more objective than most comparisons.
Dhq: Digital Humanities quarterly: Forward to the
It's paragraph usually a rushed and sloppy style, though there are other variations. Method 2 Forensic Document Analysis 1 Understand forensic document analysis. This field is often mistaken for graphology, especially in Europe where graphology has more of a following in courts. Document analysis can occasionally reveal small hints about age and sex, but it does not try to identify personality. 12 Its main purposes are to identify forgeries, and to compare a suspect's handwriting with a ransom note or other piece of evidence.
13 2 Request writing samples. All samples should be written voluntarily, with similar ink and paper. To practice your first analysis, ask a group of friends to write the same long paragraph of text. Have each person write it twice, on different pieces of paper. When they're done, shuffle them all together and use the techniques below to match each pair. Criminal investigators like to use at least 3 copies of a full letter, or 20 copies of a signature. 3 look for differences first.
7, compare the spacing between letters and words. Does your friend cram letters close together? If so, he could be self conscious or introverted. If he drags the letters out, he might be generous and independent. 8, graphologists also like to look at gaps between words; the closer they are, the more the writer enjoys crowds. 9 Others take a different approach and claim that more spacing between words shows clearer, more organized thought.
10 8 Watch how the writer strings letters together. Connections between cursive letters is a rich source of analysis, since there are so many possible variations. Graphologists rarely agree on these, but here are a few common interpretations: 11 Garlands: these curves are cup-shaped, open at the top. It may show people strength and warmth. Arcades: downward-facing curves are slower and more dignified, but also associated with creative types. Threads: the pen stroke becomes lighter and lighter at the end of a word, sometimes trailing dots on the page.
Does your handwriting really say something about your
When writing on unlined paper, people tend not to write in a perfect straight line. Put a ruler down straight across the paper, and compare it to the angle of the sentences: 7, upward writing is said to show optimism and a happy mood. Downward writing may be write a sign of discouragement or fatigue. Wavy writing that moves up and down could mean an unstable or uncertain person, or an unskilled writer. Look at the size of the letters. Large letters friend mean the person is outgoing and extroverted. Small letters mean the person is reclusive, introverted, or thrifty.
Try analyzing it like this, paying special attention to cursive letters with upper loops (such as b, d, or h a right slant shows up when the writer is eager to write, or writing quickly and energetically. If this summary happens often, the writer might be assertive and confident. A left slant could mean an unwillingness to write, or a desire to hide emotions. Some say these writers are less cooperative than people who slant to the right. 5, a straight vertical slant might mean the writer keeps her emotions in check. 6, note —this may not apply to left-handed people. 5, look at the baseline.
: 3 4, high pressure means high emotional energy. The writer may be intense, sensual, or vigorous. Average pressure means a relatively calm but anchored person. They might have good perception or memory skills. Light pressure is a sign of introversion, or someone who prefers low-energy situations. 4, check the slant of the strokes. Writing, especially cursive writing, tends to slant to the left or right.
This is not possible, and the accusations cause unjustified harm to their victims. 2, get a good sample. If possible, ask for a cursive writing sample on unlined paper. This tends to be easier to analyze than printed words or lined paper. Even better, get several handwriting samples writing at least a few hours apart. Handwriting changes with mood and circumstance, so a feature in one sample could just be a temporary artifact. Look at the pressure of the strokes.
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